Sunday, March 31, 2019

Summary On Luxurious Watch In India Marketing Essay

Summary On hedonic Watch In India Marketing EssayGood times be predicted and as headspring as seen for the get a line manufacture in India, where the consumers discharge unmindful of their prices. Due to the emergence of a powerful middle correct in India will keep the farmings economy on an upswing. If perseverance experts atomic reduce 18 to be believed then(prenominal) the realm holds a precise(prenominal) huge authority foodstuffplace for the luxurious regulate, where earlier the market was dominated by lone(prenominal) if HMT and Allwyn instigators. The industriousness currently is holding $195 million despite the fact that the penetration of memorizees is the net when comp bed globally and this resulting the former(a) global companies to settle up on that point base in India where the average growth rate can be predicted to be around 20 25 percent per year, total sizing of the market for luxirous watch is estimated to be 600 cr which plans to stic k to high tagline and is arrive at to witness a whopping 1.40 lakh families spending on such(prenominal)(prenominal) brands by 2010 as compared to 2000 families in 2002. The top brands in luxurious watch segment are the Swiss, Rado, Tagheuar, Casio, Cartier, Rolex, Omega and others. The g overnment has control over the external brand price and in that respect is severe price arguing.Porters 5 attract modelIndustry AnalysisIntense Rivalry This is where rivalry exists among competitors of the said(prenominal) industry to an extent where pressure is put on one other and limits each others profit potential. Luxurious watch industry in India is exceedingly competitive as there are various numbers of diametrical players fighting among themselves. The key players of Indian market are following heavyweightHMTTimexThe overbold entrants in to the watch industry are the Swiss, Rolex, Omega, and Rado where Omega is predominate the industry by 27 percentages. Due to the new entrants, the market parcel of land for the key players has lowered. The top 5players currently holding 15percentage of market share. The industry is very attractive for the new companies to come and therefore growth prospectuses are preferably high. The main flat coat for the intense industry rivalry is cod to penetration barriers that are quite low. Swiss and Rolex claim created big brands over the year. contract power of Buyers Due to changing trend in the market, spate have high preference of buying unpredictably. Consumers have been provided a wide ground on selecting on their choice along with the niche market that adds up an advantage to the consumer. As the market prices are non sensitive that is, it does not show the effect when there is change in stock exchange. Moreover, due to the uniqness in the mathematical product there is relatively low brand switching. agreement Power of Suppliers For an industry, achieving loyalty of customers is difficult, companies within the ind ustry are having, and developing advance(a) products that fulfil customer needs in order to achieve the loyalty. Since there are number of companies with in the same industry, it has made tough for the suppliers to whom to relieve oneself and supply.Threat of substitute having an alternative product with lower price precisely with better quality and performance explains the concept of flagellum of substitute. For the watch industry, the holy terror of substitute is very high since most of us can entrance fee to wide awake phones, handlight-emitting diode computing devices, which are capable of providing correct timings as well for different countries without having to access other mobile phones. Since the growth rate of the market is rising slowly, there is the threat where the population considered to be, as middle association prefer to give birth watch, which are cheap, and does show time.Threat of New Entrants threat of new entrants in the watch industry is quite low a s India is growing at a slow space and since there is growing number of finance companies coming up to finance, more and more outside(a) brands coming in and settling discomfit and establishing themselves. In the situation when a new entrant enters in the market, change major determinants of the market environment, determinants such as market shares, prices, customer loyalty. Entrants as Omega and Rolex consider the market as challenging because of the existing companies have closer relationships with the customers and most significantly have to consider the brand switching from one company to another. mould Analysis for the industryPolitical operators constancy of government is not well settled and indeed requires better stability though it is not super affected. However, there are cases when instability causes a foreign company or a brand to enter the market. Due to excessive advertisement where family foreboding has to be taken, in some case it is not done and hence inter venes of the political issues. Moreover, since political issues are involved there are baneful to the investors who had to invest in foreign advertisements. Since most of the materials to build are trade which attracts huge amount of scratch Duty on Manufacturing Retail charge instead of the manufacturing. Due to which most of the luxurious watch are literally out of reach to those who wanted to at least own.Economic Stability When talking about India, there are various number of taxes like, Excise duty (State and central), Custom duty, Profession tax, Service tax, Income tax, Royalty, Larcenous fees, hazardous kernel handling and other charges to be paid which makes the total amount to be around 40 45 percentage of the actual hail. During the recession time, where Asian countries were least affected, where rising incomes in the emerging market which have led to the new categories of buyers. Though huge numbers of taxes are involved, there are still potential opportunities f or ultra expensive watch manufactures to set up their base in India.Social Culture association with the luxury items and having self-esteems and creating a social status of a person creates more demand for having a luxurious product in this case, it is the luxurious watch. Culture is developing themselves to own a luxury watch in order to full come across their self esteem and also stand out of crowd, this attracting more number of investors to invest into the foreign brands.Technology Here technology plays an panoptic graphic symbol where conversion of analogue to digital waterproof watches which have created a huge market for the developers to have more innovative watches.Environmental divisor this factor does not affect much of the watch industry, un little if its summer time where over heating of new technologies in watch are noticed and its very rare.The Structural drivers leading to the growth of industryThe cost globalisation this factor gives potential for competitive a dvantage since some of the international luxurious watch companies, which deal in large volume standardized production necessary for optimum economics of scale and find the electric components required manufacturing and other parts regarding the watch are easily available with less cost factor. Labour cost in India is quite cheaper than other countries because highly masterly but low cost staffs are available.The drivers to the growth of watch industry are due to the Economic factor, Social factors, Demographic factors which play an extensive role to motivate the consumers to buy which includes occupation, education level of a person, lifestyle of a person, and the main one is the Psychological attributes like attitude, value transcription which influences people to buying behaviour. Since nature of having a luxurious item is comprehend by an individual is a status symbol in a society and displays the wealth or the income are related to conspicuous consumption, which is a socio economic phenomenon. There is an also increase trend in market globalisation where customer needs and preferences are becoming more similar. As markets globalize, those operating in such markets become global customers and may lookup suppliers who may operate on global basis.Other drivers are globalisation of government policies and globalization of competition where most of the international brands find themselves less competitive in India as most of the international brands are not available in all parts of India and government policies have support free trade markets between nations.Industry Life cycleIf experts are to be believed then it has said watch industry entered in the market in late 1969 and since then it has been growing drastically. When compared with Switzerland which possesses close to 100percentage of the luxury market value which represents 45percentage of the market value and hence making them the world leadership. India is as well coming up with the luxurio us watch. However, not entire part of the country holds up the luxurious department stores but do have in majority ones. The watch industry in India is slowly moving from the shakeout do to the maturity full stop. Shake out stage is the second level of stage in industry where new industries are emerged and competitors start to realise communication channel opportunities in the emerging industry whereas maturity stage is where efficiencies of the dominant bank line model give these organisations competitive advantage over competition (Kotler, 2003). The competition is very aggressive because of many competitors and product substitutes.Market ScenariosIntervene of new technologies, which is causing freeze off in usage of watches.Due to the involvement of mobile industry, the watch industry is being saturated. The product seems to be in a decline stage especially when seen in Europe where sales having dropped down to 20 % 30 % and globally fell off to 22.4 of percentage. The top leaders Swiss manufactures fell by 22.4% worldwide (Federation of Swiss watch industry). mountain have this perception when there exists a mobile handy, which could show numerous country timings then why an expensive watch that only shows trammel country timings have.Another anticipated market scenario is that there would be no change in the growth rate of the industry, which would probably hateful that the industry would not have any diversification and there will be no further expansion of the industry in the market. If profits decline for the watch industry, then it would probably take longer to recover. Another reason to be worried of in future is that the lifestyle and environment factors of junior generation where they prefer to have trendy look kind of product and at the same time the particular(prenominal) trend would be each outdated or faded in the industry and the main serious factor is that the limited. Source of getting gems and liquid metals to manufacture watch would mean reduction or decline in growth of manufacturing.The main scenario which could be a problematic in future is the growth of luxurious watch brands in India, where the country is still considered to be as developing country and poverty still exists and due to this number of people who belong to the median(a) class average income earners would probably have a second fancy of getting a luxurious watch which they could feel if mobile exists then why to go for a high end watch. As the industry is not in to that much of advertising about a particular brand or even if a new brand that comes into the market, people have no idea what a particular brand competency represent as. In addition, for those who know little about a brand, only prefer a niche segment that is where the Tag Heuer as the brand ambassador of this brand happens to be a popular superstar. Since the growth in India is around 10 15 percentage annually, it is considered to be as the lowest in the market when comp ared globally.

Essential Oils Biological Components

indwelling Oils Biological ComponentsEssential petroleums ar complex mixtures of many components, about 20-60 set up be present at different concentrations depending on the oil colour.According to Bakkali et al(2008) they are characterized by components of the highest concentrations, there are ordinarily 2 or 3 chief(prenominal) components in each oil compared to some components in trace amounts. major(ip) components of the oils determine the biological activity of the oils however the components in smaller amounts arrive at an linear effect(Bakkali et al, 2007). Chemical analysis of lemongrass and cinnamon oil distinguished some(prenominal) compounds. Terpenes are able to take in structurally and functionally different classes. They are made from combinations of several 5 carbon units called isoprenes (Pichersky and Gershenzon). According to Bakkali et al (2007) terpenes throw 90% of subjective oils. Tyagi and Malik (2010) found that phenols and aldehydes exhibited the highest vapor activity followed by alcohols, ketones and esters and in the end hydrocarbons.Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC MS) analysis found cinnamon oil contains high amounts of trans cinnamldehyde at 86.9% and eugenol at 6.2% as major components. Eugenol has been found to waste antifungal activity (Cheng et al, 2008) as has Cinnamyl acetate, 4-terpineol, 1,8 cineole. The additive effects of the main components occupy been reported in one study, a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol control increase of staphylococcus species whereas when they were applied individually they did not cut back product (Marei et al, 2007).Lemongrass exhibited a high concentration of citral, this has two isomers, geranial (trans citral) which presented at 51.3% and neral (cis citral) at 37.4% as major components of this oil. Usually one isomer does not occur without the other. In addition to the essential oil consists of small quantities of geraniol(alcohol) which often co exists wit h geranial and neral (Chen and Vilojen, 2010).,This study found buckram activity of geraniol against Candida albicans (Chen and Vilojen, 2010). Geranyl acetate (Hanaa et al,2012)and limonene (Gehan et al 2012) run through in addition been found to watch antifungal properties. Similar concentration found in this analysis have been previously reported by Inouye et al (2003) A study also found lemongrass oil to show higher anticandidal activity against strains of superficial mycoses than citral suggesting additive effects of minor components (Kumar et al 2012)4.2 Vapour physical bodyUsing the vaporization stage has been a fairly recent advancement, Tyagi and Malik (2010) found that essential oils in the gas medium form mi jail celles and supress the attachment of the essential oils to the organism, however the vapour state allows for free attachment although studies have been carried out there is no standard assay to evaluate inhibition by vapour phase contact (Avila-Sosa et al, 2012).A further study also stated that in liquid medium the diffusability and solubility of the essential oil whilst in vapour depends on the volatility of each compound and in a vapour form can facilitate the solubilisation of lipophilic monoterpenes better by inflicting higher cell damage on the cell membrane(Taweechaisupapong et al, 2012)Rana (2012) found with Candida dublienesis ,where the essential oil is placed directly under the fungi the growth is completely inhibited as the blues are the most volatile here .So growth is fungicidal until a certain point, as the volatile vapours give out the concentration of the vapours is not high enough to inhibit growth so a fungistatic effect is produced. Although this effect was not produced with Candida albicans it demonstrates how the vapours work. Therefore a dispersal method would be more trenchant as there would be an even distribution of the oil. If volatile compounds bear less effectively therefore allowing more molecules in t he vapour phase with increased antifungal activity promotes fungicidal effect at glower concentrations(Lopez et al ,2005) thought to be due to better penetration and contact(Tyagi and Malik, 2010).4.3 stick to and compoundsEssentail oils cannot be utilise on their own as they are classed as irritants according to health and safety (Look at COSHH form)therefore a method is involve where the oil is not as concentrated and can be used in application such as sprays where it is easier to distribute. Essential oils are big-ticket(prenominal) therefore if mixed with a carrier oil which are usually cheaper and more readily available.The essential oils blended with carrier oils showed a remarkable difference in the results for example at 25l(p

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Customization And Personalization Through Emarketing Marketing Essay

Customization And Personalization Through E merchandise Marketing EssayThe close to current and pertinent lit on e- trade is examined and the relevant atomic number 18as disuse in non-homogeneous literature which has connection with the fair game of the championship project ar explored in this chapter.E- p arentage and e-commerce are modern form of business which is performed in a technologically advance business environment. The e-business is termed as the application of information technology for internal business process as well as activities in which a attach to engages during commercial activity. These activities house include functional activities such as finance, marketing, human beings resources management and operations (Philips, 2003).Ecommerce is the use of Information and communion technology to modify external activities and relationship with case-by-cases, groups and other businesses (Laudon and Traver, 2002).Due to the growth in electronic media for busin ess functions , the way of interaction between the supplier, distributor, seller and guest has become changed and more than enhanced.E-commerce distribution channels allow businesses to get to the client agileer, with more velocity, and more survey (Budhwani, 2001)E-MarketingE-marketing is a process of building and maintaining client relationship through online activities to quicken the exchange of ideas, products and services that satisfy the goals of two parties (Mohammed et al, 2001).Strauss et al (2003) suggest that e-marketing coers a wide range of IT related applications with three main aims Transforming marketing strategies to induce more customer value through more effective segmentation, come outing, distinction and positioning strategies more efficiently planning and executing the conception, distribution, promotion and determine of goods, services and ideas creating exchanges that satisfy individual consumer and organisational customers objectives. Business i s mainly based on exchange process e-marketing has the ability to be beneficial for all the the great unwashed who involve in the business. Mainly organization has realised this and started to re pore their marketing strategy using e-marketing.E-Marketing versus Traditional MarketingAs number of individuals expenditure their time on internet is increasing rapidly, e-marketing is growing as a powerful marketing tool. Due to advancement and utilisation of technology in net profit has grown rapidly, thereby e-marketing gained more attention by most of the firms and due to this the traditional marketing methods loses its value. The traditional marketing channels homogeneous as television, print media, and radio are becoming less popular. The traditional media are competing with the electronic media for seeking customer attention but the profits and appear to be gaining over the other media. On implementing E-Marketing a caller-up can reach its customer directly through website, e-m ail, social networking sites and various other means. E-Marketing is cost effective and besides gains lot of attention of the customer. These factors sour E-Marketing to overlap the traditional marketing.The Internet is assumed to be an important channel for marketing and distribution of products and services. This is, among other things, due to the cost-effectiveness of the Internet and the convenience for customers. With the Internet marketers can reach out to a broad customer base, deposit target customers, identify their needs and communicate with them at a relatively low cost. The Internet provides an opportunity for market testing and optimization. Increasing digitalization will make it progressively easier to experimentally alter particular aspects of a business and quickly observe how customers respond (Wyner, 2000)Benefits of e-marketingE-marketing has several benefits which can be capitalised by the organisation to gain competitive goods those benefits are listed belo w,The web allows non-linear communication in which there is free flow and exchange of information, and there is a potential for two-way communication between a business and its audiences in different contexts on a one to one basis, and a many-to-many basis. The many-to-many mould involves communication between customers (Hoffman and Novak, 1995).E-marketing can increase an organisations geographic coverage beyond its traditional operating area. E-marketing will also make the organisation to harbor a global presence and a wider reach. New market and impudently customers can be obtained by the company, if the e-marketing is utilised effectively. Moreover e-marketing provides a nickel-and-dime(prenominal) way of communicating with customers and the business transactions can also be cared out in low cost. A website can be utilise as a powerful business tool for carrying out gross revenue and services all day providing greater convenience for the customer. Besides that e-marketing c an be used for an online sales promotion and provide targeted offers and special privileges to the customer.E-Marketing is fast and flexible communication tool and serve ups to fulfil the customer retention objective of the company. The internet provides rich sources of marketing data for the marketers, which can be used for decision-making purposes. Additionally e-marketing research supported with appropriate software and technology provides a good data analysis to streamline the process of research. Similarly e-marketing help to improve the brand name and provides a better platform for study of the brand presence.The purpose of branding is to facilitate the organisations task of getting and maintaining a loyal customer base in a cost-effective modality to achieve the highest possible return on investment (De Chernatony and McDonald, 1998, p.17)E-marketing problemsThere are also few problems with e-marketing that marketers must understand and respond to. Those are outline below A companys marketing environment consists of the actors and forces outside marketing that coin the marketing managements ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with its target customers. The marketing environment offers both threats and opportunities (Kotler et al, 2001)The major problem of e-marketing is lack of confidence among the online users to make transactions with unknown traders and the customers resistance to change, mainly older and injury people. Next big problem is customers concerns over privacy issues such as spam and unwanted marketing communication. Rising network security doubts over fraud and hacking cause huge setback for e-marketing. Moreover the technology suspension between the organization and customer is a disadvantage. There are also difficulties and social impacts in cross-broader trading using electronic media.Customization and Personalization through E-marketingThe e-marketing provides customization and personalization benefits to bo th firm and the customer. Customisation refers to more personalise products availability and tailored communication.The Internet marketing environment offers extensive customization and personalization opportunities. The evolution from marketing on the averages to marketing on the differences is a very prominent theme and a major advantage of the Web market compared to real environments (Reitman, 1994).Customization provides the ability to the customer to order product uniquely as per their need and specification. This helps the firms to know more about the individual customer, so that the offers and communications can be tailored as per the behaviour of the customer. This provides a great competitive advantage.E-marketing and node FocusThe customer focus is very essential for any business organisation and marketing activities are will be build to achieve high levels of customer satisfaction. Customer loyalty is emerged from satisfaction and from loyalty come more profitability a nd sales. The customer is the key element for all business but the e-marketing make customer even more powerful. Due the technology advancement customers are more demanding with search engines, more substitute product availability and multi-channel user neighborly technology. Customer makes up the online communities of an organisation. Consumer behaviour growing to be more complex. but e-marketing coupled with emerging technologies enables more precise segmentation and targeting of customer. E-marketing helps to implement personalised offering to each customer, this done by obtaining permission and sends offers to target customer. The interactive nature of internet allows getting quicker customer feedback. These factors of e-marketing helps firms to remain customer focused.

The Legacy Of Ottoman Empire And Turkey Politics Essay

The Legacy Of puff Empire And joker Politics EssayThe learning aims to summarize and poll the recent exploitations in the affectionateness east fightd speci totallyy by and by struggleds on the Arab take form process in foothold of the Turkish alien indemnity and its grow dated game to puff Empire. Beginning the legacy of pansy Empire, the study as well as attempts to highlight main milestones for the current Turkish Foreign indemnity under the light of 20th century inter patriot arrangement and its ever-changing atmosphere such as refrigerant war situations and later terminus in this region.Emphasizing the state make-up period of Turkish Re existence, it should be mentioned that laypersonist formation and occidentalization of bleak state created virgin mentality as a nation base and defensive and closely intr everywheret nation overdue to strengthen the coordinate of state and nation building target by and by the demolition of introduction warf are I. At the same period, The Middle East set about lots of transformation and rooted changes it has neer seen before such as mandate system, indep annihilateence of sweet states, oil ground strategies of westbound states, arrangement of Israel, World contend II and redistribution of power among the global powers as well as regional ones.This study similarly prioritizes the main principles and characteristics of Turkish hostile form _or_ system of government towards the Middle Eastern States during the cold war and later on. In doing so, secularist structure, idealist and peaceful approaches, transformative and pragmatic aspects of Turkish international insurance policy are examined in the light of main alliances and treaties in the Middle East. Particularly, transaction with USA, European States, Israel and Iran were mentioned in order to demonstrate big picture including the reception of Arab States to flop for long time.Iran revolution became a in the altogethe r check meridian for durability and fortitude of Turkish secular system with the regime exporting concern by Iran during the 1980 s and nineties. During nineties, focusing on terrorist attacks, turkey established strong soldiery connections with Israel which change magnitude the concern of Arab States on joker and historic prejudices were revitalized in the Middle Eastern States. subsequently the AKP came into power in washout, gradually dealing with Iran and Arab States growth both(prenominal) economically and semipolitically.Arab spring became a freshly tour point partially in monetary value of inappropriate policy of turkey. patch dud was exerting newborn initiatives in the Middle East, at the same approximately concerns on new hindranceism and neo- poofism were propagated among the Arab States. Concurrently, while recent sustainments give advantages to jokester, some telescopic and long term invisible disadvantages also occurred. Among these disadvantag es, increasing terrorist attacks, tension amidst Iran and Turkey on Syrian conflict, political intervention and new prejudices of Arab States on Turkeys foreign policy and also its pro wide awake approach for Palestine. This study at long last gives short suggestion as alternative Turkish foreign policy using soft power more(prenominal) than military and political insisting in the region which has more influential than early(a)s.THE LEGACY OF OTTOMAN empire AND TURKEYBy the block up of the 18th century, coarse scientific and technological developments had been change magnitude in western humanity. hassock Empire could no longer compete against the increasing European powers. As a military power, after Russian invasion to the Crimea which was the part of quilt Empire, Russia started to dominate the northern territories of the Ottomans, particularly black sea regions (Ucuzsatar, 2002). Additionally, Napoleans invasion of Egypt in 1798 and British invasion of Egypt in 188 2, increasing of Russian influence in Balkans due to nationalist implemental movements at the beginning of the 18th century, Ottoman Empire lost great part of territories in mentioned separate irreversibly (Quataert, 2000). aft(prenominal) the long gallant background base on pax-ottoman in around cases, with the eruption of World War I Ottoman territories became a playground of European Powers for set the international system and particularly the Middle East. However, for this region, treaties, double promises and strategies formulated by colonial powers could non bring temporary and stable system and it created endless conflict potentials and seeds of enemy like a peace to end all peace (Fromkin, 1989).Although establishing a modern, western, secular and nation based state, new Turkish Re world, mostly Turkish citizens could non ignore the Ottoman macrocosm and its long write up. Under defying contemporary Turkish politics and foreign policy particularly toward the Mid dle East is one of the strong arguments for analyzing recent development in this region due to its historic background and legacy of Ottoman Empire. As an emerging regional power, that exemplifies a synthesis surrounded by a Muslim-majority population in the Middle East and a functioning elected ally of the West, by the new millennia the proactive foreign policy of Turkey has been on the jump-start. Understanding the recent development, in many academic researches, the focus of attention typically shifts from the present to the past. As the heart of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey claims the mantle for the imperial rule transmitted from the former Roman and gnarly Empires that made the Ottomans the center of Eastern and Western field interactions for over vi hundred years (Walker, 2009). As a result, there is a maturation interest in the Ottoman legacy for modern Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East as well as in Balkans and Caucasus. Addressing the empire narration of grea t powers, Russia, Britain, France, Germany, China, Turkey, and Japan are all direct descendants and successor states of their former empires. In the same look that not all nations share the same power capabilities, ideology, or history, these post-imperial nations inherited a dissimilar type of legacy (Walker, 2009). The legacy that these former empires remember bequeathed to their respective successor states vary on a number of operative areas ranging from collective memories, institutions, ethnicities, boundaries, and historical disputes. Therefore, the way in which these states deal with and interpret their imperial legacies varies widely and is an main(prenominal) yet under theorized and understudied field in international dealing.In order to solve puzzle properly, nations traditions, values, locatings, patterns of behavior, habits, customs, achievement and particular slipway of adapting to the environment and solving riddles with respect to the threat or uptake of deplumate should be underlined for evaluating the imperial legacy. Collective store is also vital point in this regard. Having been the heart of the Ottoman Empire, the Turks look back on their history with a mixed reason of pride and ambivalence (Walker, 2009). Collective memory is central to the concept of imperial legacy. It is, after all, the intense memory of the transformative historical empire that informs national beliefs and ensures the continuation of the legacy. opus Turks view Ottoman history versus what Arabs call the Ottoman yoke, the same facts may be interpreted by twain parties in distinctly different manners. Collective memory is also naturally subjective and constructed during centuries. As a result, a legacy is wasted from the stock of stories that exist in socio-cultural context and its function is to provide a usable past (Walker, 2009). The imperial reputation of the Ottoman Empire and the historical memory of modern Turkey have been always considered and prioritized on the back of Turks mind. In order to comprehend the history of 20th century in the Middle East and recent developments, Ottoman rule based on millet system, foreign policy of Turkey as successor state, Turkeys desire toward Middle East as Ottoman legacy and moved(p)ly formulated borders based on western strategies rather than regional realities should be analyzed accurately. trigger of Turkish Republic and organic evolutions in the Middle EastAccording to the most historians, the history of modern Turkey can be divided into both phases, which are independence period from 1918 to 1923 and the era of reformist and modernization of the Turkish Republic. During the startingborn era, as a downfall of Ottoman Empire and escalation of European powers and Russian invasion of Anatolia, in the more than 10 fronts from Balkans to North Africa, from Iraq to Caucasus and Hedjaz, Ottoman armies were within the wars against Arabs, local tribes, British, French, Italian, Russian and moreover Australian and Indian troops. At the end of these wars, Ottoman frontlines withdrew to Anatolian border which is called later as misak-i milli describing mostly nation state borders which is almost similar with todays borders. In eastern part of Anatolia, Turco-Russian accord named The treaty of Moscow and then Kars Treaty finalized eastern border job with Russia in 1921. After the withdrawal of British and French forces from Istanbul in 1922 in the light of related resolutions of Sevres Treaty, Greece forces meshed temporarily the western part of Anatolia (Ucuzsatar, 2002). This employment triggered the independence struggle for war of Turks as a mass defensive measure throughout the Anatolia. In 1921 Sakarya battle which was the great defeat of Greece initiated the talks with the other imperial European powers and it was ended with Ankara Treaty. During first period of world, with the pestering background about lost territories in the Middle East, Balkans and Caucasus, Turks defended only Anatolian institute by aiming at fully independence in their Turkish heartland kind of of defending large Ottoman territories due to the wasted military capableness and concluded confrontations with Greece and European powers with the Lausanne Agreement in 1923 prior to declaration of the foundation of new Turkish Republic.In second part of foundation, briefly, Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Ataturk), turn over of new secular, modern, western and nation state, launched several political, cultural, educational, social and economic revolutions internally while he was formulating a new foreign policy based on principle peace at home, peace in the world (Ucuzsatar, 2002). This national security policy was based on territorial uprightness and full sovereignty and the modernization of Turkish society after Ottoman traditional and religious social structure. All these revolutionary efforts in a nation climax from Ottoman history were not easily variable at that t ime. Beyond the internal transformative effects, these changes created a new mentality and new foreign policy strategies which prioritize the western alliance and cultures. Among the revolutionary strategies of Ataturk, abolishing of Caliphate in 1934, changing education system, new Latin alphabet as parts of secular state and society were the giant diversifications from Middle Eastern communities.In transforming of region, during the independence period of Turkey, several tremendous changes in the Middle East, never seen in history, occurred in terms of emerging new states, drawing unnatural borders, creating new conflicts among states, increasing the influence of oil based strategies and mandate system which dominated the first half of century in the region.With regard to the foreign policy of Turkey and its new consort at first decades of Republic, Turkish foreign policy between the both world wars was formulated by Ataturks vision and his personality. That is why most writers called this period The Turkey of Ataturk. (Gol, 1992) According to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkeys foreign policy objectives were based on sovereign entity, and full benefits of peace which ability be called non-irredentist approach with the exception of the Montreux Convention, Mosul province and the Hatay Issue. According to Turkey, Mosul was within the content pact boundaries. On the other hand the Treaty of Lausanne left the clear frontier with Iraq to be settled directly with Britain as trustee for Iraq. talks started in May 1924, but reached no definite conclusion. The Treaty of Lausanne envisaged that if the parties failed to find a solution within nine months, the reappearance would be referred to the federation of Nations. By 6 August 1924 Britain had persistent to make a biased application to the League of Nations and had the item Iraqi Frontier put on the agenda of the Council of the League. Finally, the Council decided that the Brussels Line become the permanent border, thereby awarding Mosul to Iraq in December 1925 (Gol, 1992). Despite the reactions in Turkey, the government decided to abide this decision. Beyond the zygomorphic transaction and some agreements and diplomatical visits with close countries, in 1937 Turkey participated to the Saadabad Pact with Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan. It was Turkeys attempt to be a duo between Asia and Europe.Having witnessed that the abolishing of the caliphate and the secularization of the state caused bitterness in Arab countries, Ataturks westernization policies indirectly illogical Arabs and Turks. The treaty of brotherhood between Turkey and Afghanistan was signed during the independence war of Turkey. Moreover, Turkey started to lead an Eastern Pact and signed two agreements with Iran and Iraq. In addition to the pledge of friendship with Iran, the visit of Shah Pehlavi served to open a new era in Turca- Iranian relations. Turkey and Iraq solved the border conundrum with the Mosul Agreement . The Saadabad Pact was not a military alliance, but a pact of friendship and solidarity. The pact called for non-aggression, consultation among the signatory states in case of a threat (Gol, 1992). As a regional treaty, it was a seed of joint approach, but prior to the World War II, it could not be active and behind the expected train as a multinational organization.Although Ataturk change Turkey in the 1920s and 1930s from Ottoman Empire to secular republic led Turkey toward West culturally, economically and politically, its population never left its religious beliefs, traditional values and heritage. After the death of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1938, the Turks showed a marked determination to preserve their Islamic identity and develop good relations with neighboring Muslim nations. In reality, unfortunately the Arabs could not forget the harsh oppression of the nascent Arab national movements, and Turks did not right away forget how Arabs had betrayed them during World War I. Actually the relations between Arab Countries and Turkey did not become as expected level due to Turkish Foreign policy priorities and the independence period of Arab countries except Iraq during 1930s and 1940s. After WWII, no close relationship developed with Arab Countries for long time II due to Turkeys whole engagement with West such as Truman article of faith with USA in 1947 and joining NATO.After the WW II, in most Arab Countries nationalist blocs were launched and led by Egypt and Syria which was based on confirming the Soviet bearing in the international arena and opposing Turkeys regional policies. Another substantial development was also Turkeys recognition to Israel which stirred Arab countries foreign policies remarkably against Turkey. horizontal though not a common known, independence struggle of Algeria against France was also milestone that Turkey did not show willingness as expected level for recognizing the independence of Algeria and not directly supporte d this independency due to its western relations. Under the cold war situation and transformation of Arab countries, Turkish foreign policy was based on its interest with western allies during sixties and 1970s. Even though some positive developments internally occurred in terms of religious rights and emotional contacts with Arab communities, several military coups pr thus farted these kinds of suppuration relations with region. In eighties, Turkeys relationship with the Muslim oil producing countries was a complete transformation in the relief of power that prevailed during the 1970s. Oil import strategies basically affected Turkeys relations with Iraq, Iran and Libya. Moreover, in Turkish public arena, Arab-Israel wars and Palestine drama, invasion of Afghanistan increased public sensibility as Muslim community. Turkey was also deeply affected by Iran revolution in terms of secular regime structure and western relations.Both developing relations with Israel and terrorist actio ns hosted by Iraq and Syria were dominant points on Turkeys foreign relations with Arab Countries while economic relations was deviation on certain level. Turkeys exertions on the membership for European Union also showed its willingness toward westernization and controlled and match relations with neighboring countries, particularly against Iran in internal politics. During the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s cold war situations and internally several coups with the support of western countries in Turkey played key portion on foreign policy formulation.Dilemma of Turkey Turkish Secularism and its image in Arab StatesThe Arabs were one of the authoritative nations during the Ottoman Empire. Although there has been close cultural and religious common sense between Turks and Arabs, the conflicts during the last period of Ottoman Empire fed the outperform between Turks and Arabs till 2000s. During the independence period of Arab Countries and cold war period, both Turkey and Arab States ha ve not been in common strategic allies and close relations. Despite the reactions of Arab states, Turkey was one of the states which recognized Israel initially. During the cold war Turkey preferred to develop its relations with western countries dominantly, and Turkey could not strengthen its relation with Middle Eastern Countries particularly with Egypt and Syria. Ironically, when Turkey faced serious problems with Israel such as in 1956 and after 1967 and 1973 wars, its relations with Arab Countries increased remarkably. In this period Turkey several measure associated with Arab States against Israel in UN resolutions and OIC appeals which involve common reactions and some sanctions against Israel (Armaoglu, 1995).It should be also mentioned that water sharing problem between Syria, Turkey and Iraq triggered the problems which was based on sharing of Euphrates water. In this fill in, Syria with the support of Arab League started to support and host terrorist groups within the Syria and Bekaa Valley in Lebanon which weakened the relations with Syria and Iraq.Beyond the political and economic setbacks among regional states, there are several effects and take inings which feed prejudice and blames reciprocally between Turkey and Arab States. First of all, even though during the Ottoman Empire there were no crucial problems, in declining period, perceptions among the Arab nations against Turkey have been changed by nationalist approaches, movements, policies of colonial western states, priorities and new foreign policy formulation of new Turkish Republic. Secondly, the structure of western style state, abolishing Caliphate and Arab alphabet and also secularist state formation in Turkey increased the confused feelings of Arab nations against Turkey. Thirdly, the assumption about Ottoman period as Ottoman yoke in Arab region which was oblige by western mandatory states is also influential dimension in relations between Turkey and Arab States during the 20th century (Gol, 1992). The negative attitude of Turkey sometimes during the independence period of Arab States fostered the feelings against Turkey. Last but not least, Turkeys close relation with Israel was one of the important arguments of Arab reaction towards Turkey. Additionally, Turkeys formally involuntariness on development of relations with Arab States also played partially government agency due to its regime protection reflex until 2000.Dramatically, this picture changed with the changing the coevals structure and increasing the Islamic values in Turkey and also with transformation in Arab States recently. The improvement of the Turkish image in the Arab world over the past decade is due to a number of reasons. The rise of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2002 changed the anti-Islamic secularism gradually in terms of politically and socially. Importantly, zero-problems and win-win strategy in regional foreign policy undefended up Turkey to the Arab and Muslim wo rld. The democratic structure of Turkey and its growing economic model and export-led growth in a region daze the rentier economies based on one export good. Moreover, the success of the Turkish balance between religion, secularism and public freedoms in a region was attracted by regional states. Growing familiarity with Turkish culture and society through its popular television set programs, documentaries, movies and TV series also played significant role on image transformation (TESEV, 2012).Politically, Turkeys strong stand against American use of its territory and bases in the 2003 for invasion of Iraq, Prime Minister Erdogans unexpected reactions to Israel during the Gaza war of December-January 2008-2009 and Turkeys stand against Israel after the Gaza Flotilla incident in May of 2010 increased positive feelings of Arab nations. intimately recently, with the increasing its positive image among the Arab States, this picture not only offers Turkey great opportunity, but also c alls tremendous challenges in this Pandora box for coming period. In this vein, as a direct effect on Turkish-Arab relations, Turkish-Israeli relations should be examined for proper consideration of regional development (Onis, 2012).Turkey- Israel dealing and the Reactions from Muslim States in the Middle EastHaving thought the historical background during Ottoman Empire, good relations between the Jews and the Turks have played a curious role in development of Turkey-Israel relations in 20th century. Israels berth in the heart of a hostile Arab world triggered itself to create new allies to nonpayment isolation by establishing relations with some states in the Middle East. Of all these countries, Turkey and Iran had more in common with Israel than others. As a historical dimension, Ottoman rulers and Turkeys attitude toward the Jews helped smooth the way to expression relations between the two countries. Turkey had been among the first states to recognize the establishment of I srael on May 14th 1948 (Abadi, 1995). However Arabs did not accept Turkish foreign policy and demonstrated their disappointment on this issue. In 1951, for mannikin Turkey agreed with the West in protesting Egypts decision which inhibits Israeli ships transit through the Suez Canal. This caused a serious crisis in Turkey-Egypt relations. However, these developments have occurred several times because of Israels aggressive attitudes. Although Turkey developed its relations with Israel, it incorporated Iraq into the Baghdad Pact in terms of anti-Israeli resolutions and measures. Consequently, its policy toward Israel became more confused and it has been difficult to understand at first look. With regard to the Suez crisis, Israel, in collaboration with England and France, started to occupy the Sinai Peninsula. Upon this, based on the Baghdad Pact decisions, Turkey lowered its level of diplomatic representation. Similarly, Israeli declaring Jerusalem as the countrys eternal capital c aused a new crisis for Turkey-Israel relations.On the other hand, during 1950s and 1960s, clearly Turkey-Israeli relations were determined more pragmatic approach rather by ideologic. Having said Israels desire to escape isolation in the region, relations between Israel and Turkey expanded to include non-security matters and for example Turkey initiated to share agricultural expertise from Israel (Cetinsaya, 2005).In Turkey-Israel relations, 1967 War and the provocation on burning Al Aqsa Mosque in 1969, which is one of the most holy places of Islam, caused to establishment of Organization of Islamic Conference that have been milestone to withdraw diplomatic relations to the low level and serious conviction towards Israel. In this period, there was a growing threat for Turkey which was the new regime in Syria and its foreign policy arguments against Turkey within the cold war situations. Therefore, Turkeys policy toward Israel was determined not only by devotion of pan-Arabism and Nassers ambition, but also by Syrias aggressive behavior. During 1970s and 1980s Syria gave important facilities such as shelter and encouragement to terrorist groups of Kurds and to political movements, such as the Armenian Marxist terrorist organization ASALA. This Syrian policy identified the relations between two countries during last three decades. In the early 1990s the audience of the diplomatic arena changed and Israel gained new dynamism in international relations. Asias most populated countries, such as India and China, established diplomatic relations with Israel, and others followed these actions. At last, in December 1991, the political climate seemed appropriate and the Turkish government decided to re-establish full diplomatic relations with Israel. 1990s was the honeymoon for Turkey-Israel relations that several important and close relations has been founded such as military defense agreement, transportation of the Manavgat Spring water to Israel, know-how sharing o n military technologies, agricultural trade on different kinds of seeds. The more Syrian threats emerged towards Turkey, the stronger ties between Turkey and Israel was established. Thus, the amount of Israeli tourist rapidly increased in Turkey (Bengio, 2005).On the other hand, Turkeys economic needs prescribe reliance on the Arab markets, especially for oil. In addition, Turkey needed more commercial relations with Arab states. In the political sphere Turkey seek to obtain Arab support during the Cyprus crisis. Increasing the relations with Israel, Turkey faced to damage of support from the numerous Muslim members in the UN. In the context of Arab public opinion on Turkey, feelings have been always fluctuated in accordance with political development, alliances, military agreements and Palestine issue. (Nachmani, 2005)Beyond the recent development at the end of 1990s, Turkey-Israel relations lost impetus in the 2000s as a core of the change of governmentin Israel. With the Arie l Sharon administration coming to power, violence towards the Palestinian people increased. Following the Al-Aqsa intifada and Israels proliferating operations on the Palestinian occupied lands, in April 2002, widespread protests against Israel took place in many provinces throughout Turkey. Turkey accused Israel of carrying out genocide, thereby worsening bilateral relations. On the reverse to common knowledge, Turkey-Israel relations have not worsened till 2009 even though there were several important developments occurred in that period. More obviously, with the AKP (Justice and Development Party) administration coming to power in Turkey in November 2002, rough-cut economic and political relations have been maintained. After the Iraqi war, officially and non-officially, various news sources stated that there was Israeli presence in northern Iraq and the (Israeli secret service) Mossad agents were training Kurdish Peshmargas which meant the direct support the insularity of Ira q and terrorist PKK groups. This has resulted in mistrust towards Israelinbilateral relations. At the same time, in addition to the development in relations with Arab States particularly with Syria after Hafez Al-Assad, Turkeys facilitative role in Turkey-Syria relations started to improve again as of butt on 2007. This time, Turkey led the Syria-Israel negotiations and the hopes of settling dispute between these countries have arise (TESEV, 2012).Last but not least, the breakpoint in Turkey-Israel relations has been erupted with namely Marmara flotilla issue that aimed to humanitarian assistance to the Gaza strip, unfortunately 9 Turks were killed by Israeli army. Although Turkey declared its conditions against this military intervention, the current Israeli government declined Turkeys demands which were suggested for the improvement of the bilateral relations. This rejection by Israel shows that the political relations between the two countries will deal at low-level. In recent period, mostly Turkey-Israel relations are going under the shadow of Palestinian conflict. Even though some politicians use this foreign policy leverage for increasing domestic credibility in Turkey, as long as Turkey continues to support Palestine and objurgate Israel for its attacks, virtually credible image of Turkey may go on.Turkey- Iran Relations After IslamicRevolutionin IranIran and Turkey are two regional powers and main regional actors which have played significant role during history and they founded two empires and civilizations. Foreign policies and strategies of these two states always designate the developments in the Middle East. Describing the recent and current situation in the Middle East, especially, after the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Turkey and Iran relations gained importance in terms of their influences in the region. With the end of the Shahs regime, Irans foreign policy took a significant turn. This shift in Iran has redefined its relations with Turkey. In addition to the Sunni-Shia sectarian issue and historical contingences between Turkey and Iran which was deemed particularly, foreign-policy orientation of the two countries also diverged completely. While Iran has maintained contentious policies toward America and even Europe, Turkey continued to be part of the Western alliance, NATO and Europe. The revolution led America to redefine its alliances in the region and maintain even closer relations with Turkey.During the Iran-Iraq War, as first decade of Turkish-Iranian relations after the revolution, Turkey and Iran have had willingness to cooperate in trade and economic relations. In this period, the volume of trade between the two countries exceeded $2 billion, consisting mainly of oil sales by Iran in give back for Turkish goods and technical assistance. During the Iran-Iraq War, Turkey tried to maintain neutrality and ameliorate its economic relations with both neighbors, especially with Iran (Armaoglu, 1995). Generally, Tu rkeys neutrality was welcomed in both Iran and the Arab world. However, when Turkey attempted to mediate the conflict, it did not succeed. Despite developments in trade relations, problems arose between Ankara and Tehran in the mid-1980s over PKK terrorism in Turkey and Irans efforts to spread the Islamic Revolution in the region (Sander, 1990).After the first half of the 1980s, Turkish-Iranian relations mostly focused on problems related to ideological differences. Iran repeatedly protested the secularist policies in Turkey which was understood as an intervention and regime exportation to Turkey. The United States also reacted to the Islamic Revolution by improving its relations with Turkey. As Iranian-U.S. relations worsened, Turkey appeared to be the most important ally of NATO and the United States in the region.Significant developments toward the end of the 1980s changed the regional dynamics as well as the course of Iran-Turkey relations. In 1988, after eight years of fighting , the Iraq-Iran War ended. Moreover, the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the USSR were the most important systemic changes affecting Turkey-Iran relations (Armaoglu, 1995). In addition to the challenges caused by the Islamic Revolution, the constants of Turkey-Iran relations, in the form of cultural, political and ideological rivalries, rose to the surface. Turkey and Iran found themselves in competition for their influence over Central Asia and the South Caucasus. During the Azeri-Armenia war in Nagorno Karabag, Iran and Turkey positioned in different sides, while Iran was supporting Armenia, Turkey supported Azerbaijans claims. Additionally, Central Asian newly emerging States became playground and political challenge scene invisibly between Turkey and Iran as well as the Saudi Wahhabism and Western ideologies.The first Gulf War in 1990-91 also changed the dynamics in the region. Iran and Turkey approac

Friday, March 29, 2019

The Womens Ordination Movement Theology Religion Essay

The Wo mens fiat Movement Theology organized religion EssayThe dubiousness of whether or non women should be decreed set apart for religious loss leadership and/or to administrate certain religious rites has been present inwardly Christian and Jewish groups since proto(prenominal) in U.S. hi write up. Women atomic bite 18 regularly prescribed within some religious groups. Others restrict parliamentary procedure to men. Others continue to conceive the incredulity.Though U.S. Protestants did non first ordain women until the 1800s, women had for a long duration prior to that been religious leaders two in their churches and in the creation squ are. Perhaps one of the most famous examples of this is found in the story of Anne Hutchinson, who in the 1630s in Massachusetts ch onlyenged male authorities by safekeeping meetings with women to discuss her g everywherenment ministers sermons. Her actions led to a trial, a conviction, and banishment to Rhode Island. While ga lore(postnominal) women during this era exercised religious leadership, it was not until the mid-1800s that a woman was formally official to Christian leadership. Congregationalist Antoinette Br induce was ordained in 1853 when she was called to become pastor of a church in overbold York. Unitarian Universalist leader, capital of Washington Brown, was ordained about a decade newr, in 1863, and AME Zion minister, Mary Jane Small, was ordained in 1898. These ordinances of women and new(prenominal)s that followed are indicative of significant changes that occurred in the mid-1800s and early 1900s in the theatrical roles of women in religious and public life. These changes were not without controversy as exemplified by the contentious make dos that emerged as some groups supported and others vehemently opposed the monastic show of women.The theologies and/or polities of some Christian groups and denominations afforded women early access to ordination. For example, the Quakers i nsistence that all people are equal originally God provided support for those who want sex equity in churches and society as a result, though Quakers did not formally ordain anyone to ministry in favor of recording ministers, they did greet women as authoritative talkers. The group known as the Shakers that emerged in the eighteenth century not only sprung up under leadership of a woman, Ann Lee, but likewise believed that rescuer would return to earth as a woman. Northern Baptists (later known as American Baptists) likewise demonstrated early support of women as preachers by supporting the ordination of Edith Hill in 1897, setting the stage for a continuation of the practice within that Baptist group. Also, during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, some(prenominal) Holiness and Pentecostal groups regularly ordained women.In addition to these pioneers in the movement are other traditions, including Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and the United church building of Christ, who in the twentieth century engendered and then formalistic support for the ordination women. These traditions often faced inner conflicts over the distrust of ordaining women. In the late 1960s, for example, three Lutheran bodies (the Lutheran Church in America, the American Lutheran Church, and the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod), held a consultation on the ordination of women but were unable to reach a consensus. Both the Lutheran Church in America and the American Lutheran Church eventually pass the ordination of women. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod experienced significant upheaval over the grapple and over other issues having to do with scriptural authority and interpretation. The conflict resulted in the formation of a new denomination, the Association of evangelistic Lutheran Churches. The evangelical Lutheran Church in America, formed in 1987 by a merger of the Lutheran Church in America, the American Lutheran Church, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church , from its inception ordained both women and men. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod continues to limit ordination to men.Other Christian groups, for example, many Baptists and the romish Catholic and Eastern Jewish-Orthodox churches, have consistently opposed the ordination of women. Many Baptist groups and congregations also renounce women ordination, though Baptist polity allows for each local anesthetic church to determine its own belief and practice. In 1964, Addie Davis became the first Southern Baptist woman to be ordained. In the early 1980s, the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) passed a resolution stating that offices requiring ordination are restricted to men. Supporters of this resolution point to sections of a denominational statement of beliefs, The Baptist reliance and Message, that states the following The churchs scriptural officers are pastors and deacons. While both men and women are gifted for service in the church, the office of pastor is limited to men as q ualified by Scripture (The Baptist Faith and Message, 2000). While this is an authorized SBC stance, neither denominational resolutions nor Baptist Faith and Message statements are binding upon local congregations. Thus, decisions about ordaining women finally reside with each SBC church.Groups who oppose womens ordination do so primarily on the basis of their interpretations of biblical texts. Arguments include, generally, the perspectives that the New will does not report the existence of any women pastors, that pastors who represent the people before God should, like Christ, be male, that New Testament guidelines for church order do not include instructions that specify women, and that some New Testament texts forbid women to be pastors or have roles of authority over men (i.e. I Timothy 211-12).Those who support womens ordination also voice arguments based on biblical interpretation. For example, evidence exist in Old and New Testament texts of sequences when women exercised l eadership over both males and young-bearing(prenominal)s and Paul stated clearly in Galatians 327-28 a theology of gender equity (there is no longer male and female for all of you are one in Christ Jesus). A number of biblical scholars and theologians, including feminist scholars, have emphasized biblical examples of womens leadership and gender equity. Some Hebrew Bible scholars argue on the basis of their development of Genesis 1 and 2 that both genders are created equally in Gods image. Protestant supporters include in their arguments the traditional Protestant emphasis on the priesthood of all believers.The late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have witnessed a resurgence of the tilt over womens ordination. By the end of the twentieth century, many Protestant and Jewish groups accepted women in the role of pastoral leader or rabbi. Some groups, however, continued to oppose womens ordination and for some of those groups the debate has escalate. The 2000 revision of the Baptist Faith and Message, cited above, has reignited and intensified the debate amongst Baptists as proponents of ordination argue that the 2000 language about women leaders is anti-woman and opponents insist that the revision only underscores a biblical mandate that piece women and men are of equal value, the role of pastor is restricted to men. The 1963 Baptist Faith and Message, which the 2000 version revises, does not include a statement limiting the pastoral office to men. Moderate Baptist groups such as the Alliance of Baptists, the joint Baptist Fellowship, and the American Baptist Churches, U.S.A. contract a more proactive and supportive stance toward ordaining women.In recent decades, the debate has also intensified within the Roman Catholic tradition. Throughout the seventies, Roman Catholics debated whether or not the priesthood should be open to women. A final ruling on this question was published in the Vaticans 1976 Declaration on the Question of the Admission Women to the ministerial Priesthood the Declaration stated that the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith resolve it necessary to recall that the Church, in fidelity to the example of the Lord, does not assure herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination. Throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, support except grew for the ordination of women to the Roman Catholic priesthood. Early in the 1990s, Vatican leaders began to take actions they hoped would quiet public support for womens ordination. These actions included pronouncements against ordaining women as well as disciplinary actions against individuals who advocated openly for womens ordination. Pope John Paul II issued a statement in 1994 underscoring the teaching of the 1976 Declaration and further stating that the teaching was not open to debate. The 1990s also saw debate sparked within the ranks of those Roman Catholics who supported womens ordination. Notably, feminist biblical scholar Elisabeth Sc hussler Fiorenza argued at a 1995 Womens Ordination Conference that women should aim not for ordination but rather for a discipleship of equals that resisted the overwhelming patriarchy of the Roman Catholic Church (Schussler Fiorenza, 1983). Others at the throng maintained a stance in favor of womens ordination. In the sign decades of the twenty-first century, the debate over womens ordination continues within the Roman Catholic Church.The issue of womens ordination has also stirred controversy within Jewish communities. The question was first posed in 1889 by Mary M. Cohen in Jewish Exponent Could not our women be ministers? (Nadell, 1988, 1). In 1972, many age after the publication of this question, the Sally Jane Priesand became the first female rabbi within meliorate Judaism in the U.S. Amy Eilberg in 1985 became the first woman received into the rabbinate within unprogressive Judaism. To date, no women have become rabbis within Orthodox Judaism, though debate over the que stion continues within that Jewish sector.Other religious groups in the U.S. also debate what roles women can hold. For example, a controversy currently exists among Muslims over to what extent women can act as imams most agree that while women can lead a gathering of women in prayer, women cannot lead a mixed gender group in prayer. Jehovahs Witnesses consider all persons ordained upon public baptism. Women are commonly appointed as full time ministers in order to evangelize or to serve as missionaries. However, the roles of deacon and elder as well as the authority to perform baptisms, funerals or weddings are restricted to male Witnesses. The Church of Jesus Christ of last mentioned Day Saints does not ordain women but the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints adopted the practice in 1984.several(prenominal) organizations have emerged over time to support women clergy. One of the earliest was the Womans ministerial Conference, founded in 1893 in capital of Mass achusetts, Massachusetts. The International Association of Women Preachers was founded in 1919 by M. Madeline Southard, a Methodist minister from Kansas. Both of these groups supported women who believed they had a call to preach and advocated publicly for women in religious leadership. The Women Church movement, which began in the U.S. in the 1970s primarily to support Roman Catholic women who sought ordination, has kept animate ecumenical dialogue about the ordination of women as well as about other ecclesial and societal issues that impact the lives of women.Jill CrainshawSee also Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, Feminism, Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Southern Baptist Convention, Women-Church Movement.SourcesKeller, Rosemary Skinner, and Rosemary Radford Ruether, eds. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. Bloomington Indiana University Press, 2006.Keller, Rosemary Skinner, and Rosemary Radford Ruether, eds. In Our knowledge Voices Four Centuries of Womens Religious Writing. San Francisco Harper San Francisco, 1995.Nadall, Pamela. Women Who Would Be Rabbis A History of Womens Ordination, 1889-1995. Boston Beacon Press, 1988.Reid, Daniel G., ed. Dictionary of Christianity in America. Downers Grove InterVarsity, 1990.Schussler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. Discipleship of Equals A Critical womens rightist Ekklesialogy of Liberation. New York Crossroad Publishing Co., 1983.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Realty Essay -- essays research papers fc

TABLE OF CONTENTSTITLE PAGE2EXECUTIVE SUMMARY3BUSINESS OWNERSHIP3 finance.4MARKETING5CONCLUSIONS/RECCOMENDAITONS10BIBLIOGRAPHY..11APENCICES auxiliary I.12APPENDIX II18APPENDIX III...23APPENDIX IV...27APPENDIX V28Proposal forGREENACRES REALTYCompiled by BALENTINE SOLUTIONS.01/03/05The purpose of this proffer is to provide in depth information, research and knowledge of several assorted approaches that keep be taken into account when deciding on what path to pursue for Greenacres Realty. Balentine Solutions trusts that once this proposal has been explored, you will be suit adequate to(p) to come to a concise decision and your worry will be ready for existence.BUSINESS OWNERSHIPThere argon two possibilities of business ownership and structure that essential be considered for Greenacres realty, they are1. PARTNERSHIP federations are simple and relatively inexpensive to establish. They can be made up of a minimum of two and a maximum of 20 members. The expertness to raise capital becomes somewhat easier with there being a wider preference from personal sources and financial services. Everyone involved brings with them an area of expertise and the business can be sub-divided into specialization. The work load is shared. Partners decide on how profits and/or debts are to be distributed and a contract is drawn up outlining much(prenominal) issues before the business is started, this ensures everyones protection. Although a contract is drawn up it must also be understood that alliances do not require limited liability, thus, if one or more partners are not able to pay a debt, die or decide to break the partnership agreement, it is left upon the shoulders of the remaining members to cover any incurred costs. A partnership does not pay income tax .Each partner records their share of the profit/loss on their individual tax return, however, a separate income tax return must be lodged to report the income of the partnership.Tax return from for partnership see ad junct IPartnership agreement see app... ...ners have caused this Agreement of Partnership to be executed on the dates indicated below, effective as of the date indicated above.Partners Signatures of partners The Australian play along Number and the ABNOn forming a company, you are issued with an Australian Company Number (ACN) by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission. When a company registers for an ABN, the number issued by the Australian Business Registrar is its ACN with two check digits at the radicalCompanies dont have to quote both the ABN and ACN on documents. to a lower place the Corporations Act, a company is required to show its ACN on all prevalent documents and negotiable instruments. However, companies with an ABN can use the ABN in place of their ACN, on the embodiment thatthe ABN includes the companys ACN as the last nine digits, and the company quotes the ABN in the same way it quoted its ACN.APPENDIX IIInewspaper

Never The Sinner - Production Critique :: essays research papers

This paper is a critique of a payoff of Never the Sinner, a murder frolic written by John Logan, which was performed and produced by the Depart workforcet of Theatre and trip the light fantastic at E.S. Strother Theatre located on the campus of Ball State University. film director Judy E. Yordon captures the viciousness and brutality of the murder of an impeccant, young boy in this dramatic account of a homicide at the hands of two young men who are intertwined in a dark, sexual relationship. During the murder and trial of the horror of the century the director and cast portray to the audience the sheer force-out and torment these two men are willing to affect on another(prenominal) human being for the utter enjoyment of killing another person. This is done by exposing the events of the murder to the audience and then allowing the audience to stop the motive of the murder, by means of interpretation using the final delineation as the keynote in the performance. I found the last panorama of the performance to be rather disturbing to say the least.The performers in the production were very suitable for the roles in which they were cast. Dustin Bennett (Nathan Leopold) and Andrew Burt (Richard Loeb) were excellent in their performance and visualised their characters well. Both ideally fit the roles in which they were cast. As for the other fin members of the cast they to were well suited in their roles and showed much talent in their ability to portray different characters in the same performance. Especially that of Natalie Ellis who pictured both a girlfriend and a doctor in the lean and who easily adapted to her changing roles within the scene. The actors knew their lines of dialogue and exactly what they were talk about, which made it easy for the audience to follow along. The actors could clearly be hear and had clear enunciation, expect during the scene of the trial, in which, the police officer was on the stand. This was in part due to the fa ct that he was seated in an area beside the audience and it was hard to make out what he was locution because the audience was blocking him from my view. The voice the characters used was appropriate, especially during the trial when the attorneys were disquisition and when Germaine Rheinhardt was on the stand. The men were harsh, loud and assertive and Germaine spoke in her sweet, innocent and naive voice when answering their questions.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Moral Philosophy of Global Peace Essay -- Philosophy Philosophical Pap

Moral Philosophy of Global mollificationABSTRACT Global Peace is the summum bonum, so we must know its negative as well as positive meanings. Simultaneously calm must be understood in all its interrelated but theoretically differentiated dimensions as personal, social, national, supranational and global. Today, kind-heartedkind is suffering from multidimensional crises such as terrorism, population-explosion, denial of human rights, economic inequality, racial discrimination, ideological extremism, religious intolerance, social injustice, ecological imbalance, consumerism, oppressiveness of weak, etc. These peace-related issues compel us to lay down the fundamental principles of a radical global ethics that expects us to realize our character references and duties regarding global peace. It includes the role and ideals of educationalists, the duties of scientists, philosophers, and bring forwarders, the inculcation of human values such as nonviolence, love, etc. Since wars pr otrude in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed -Preamble to the shaping of UNESCOGlobal peace is the supreme ideal, or the Summum Bonum, so in nine to know the exact meaning and real nature of peace as-well-as the ways to realise it, first of all, we have to rectify the prevailing tendency to think of peace altogether in negative terms as absence seizure of bilateral war, since it encourages the pacifism, which does nothing, but denounce such war, while global overview confirms the nominal head of ethnic and civil war etc. Accordingly the negative exposition of peace should also include the elimination of such wars. Sometimes peace as Opposite of Violence , as is done by Daisaku Ikeda. (1) Of curriculum peace will be achieved by removing all k... ...r, Peace enquiry Center, Gujrat Vidyapeeth Ahemedabad).(5) British Writer Arthor Koestler being his works Janus with these lines.(6) Gorbachev, M. Perestroika, PP 225-266 (Cha pter 7).(7) Jonas, Hans. , The Imperative of Responsibilitive, P.7.(8) Philosophy Today, spring, 1988, Vol.32, No.1/4 P. 77.(9) Soka Gakkai News, Vol. 18, No. 286, March 1993 P.7.(10) Murty, K.S., The Quest for Peace, P. 214.(11) In his book Reconstruction of philanthropy .(12) Acharangasutra (a Jain Treatise).(13) Dammapad 3.5 - Never in thise world is hate appeased by hatred. It is only appeared by love. This is an eternal law.(14) Mac Bride Report, Many Voices, One World, UNESCO, 1980.(15) Dimensions of Peace and Non-violence The Gandhian Perspective P. 22.(16) The Moral Law, P. 90.(17) The quest for peace, P. 196.(18) Rgvedic Prayer.

Media Violence and the Captive Audience :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

The media, including television programming, cartoons, film, the news, as well as literature and magazines, is a very powerful and pervasive medium for expression. It can render a large number of people and convey ideas, cultural norms, stereotypical roles, power relationships, ethics, and values. Through these messages, the mass media may have a whole determine on unmarried behavior, views, and values, as well as in shaping national character and culture. Although there is a great latent for the media to have a positive and affirming effect on the public and inn at large, there may be important negative consequences when the messages conveyed atomic number 18 harmful, destructive, or violent.Many psychologists have studied the effect of the media on an individuals behavior and beliefs about the world. There have been over one thousand studies which confirm the link that violence portrayed finished the media can influence the level of aggression in the behavioral patterns of children and adults (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001). The observed personal effects include, join ond aggressiveness and anti-social behavior towards others, an increased fear of becoming a victim or target of aggressive behavior, becoming less cutting to violence and victims of violent acts, and concurrently desiring to watch more violence on television and in material-life (A.A.P. 2001). According to John Murray of Kansas State University, there ar three main avenues of effects conduct effects, desensitization, and the plastered World Syndrome (Murray, 1995, p. 10). The direct effects of observing violence on television include an increase in an individuals level of aggressive behavior, and a purpose to develop favorable attitudes and values about using violence to crystallize conflicts and to get ones way. As a result of image to violence in the media, the audience may be love desensitized to violence, pain, and suffering both(prenominal) on television and in t he world. The individual may also derive to tolerate higher levels of aggression in society, in personal behavior, or in interpersonal interactions. The third effect is known as the Mean World Syndrome, which theorizes that as a result of the amount of violence seen on television and also the context and social perspective portrayed through the media, certain individuals develop a belief that the world is a vainglorious and dangerous place, and begin to fear violence and victimization in real life (A.A.P. 2001).The effect of the media on young children is especially salient. Young children much learn how to act and behave from what they observe at home, from the adults and older peers they come in contact with, and from what they see on television.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Mary Crow Dog in the American Indian Movement :: essays research papers

During the American Indian act, many Native Americans tribes came unitedly as a unit and fought against the injustices that were thrust upon them by American political polices. The fact that many Native people were ?whitemanized? through Christianity and other things that much(prenominal) as boarding school played a role in shaping Native peoples individuality. However, the involvement in the American Indian Movement shaped the identity of Mary swash Dog by devising her accept who she was ?an Indian woman, and by making her more willing to postulate for the rights of Native Americans. Before joining the American Indian Movement, Mary swash Dog was forced into boarding school and she questi unrivalledd her identity many times. For instance, she give tongue to that as a young girl she wanted to know who she was because her strip down was very light. Because of this she wanted a to lay out in the cheerfulness so that she could become a real skin Indian. She questioned her I ndian identity because her father was white and also because she was a ?iyeska.? This meaning a half(prenominal) blood Indian and as a result she was looked down upon by white people and full bloods Indians. When Mary Crow Dog united the American Indian Movement, her outlook on life as an Indian changed because she accepted who she was and she was proud of be and Indian as well. She held on to her former(a) religion and she participated in old Indian traditions such as spectre dancing. She also went back to using medicine man and peyote roadman. In her point of view ?holding on to her own religion was one way of resisting a slow death of the Indian culture that was being perpetuated by the white man. In addition, she stated that to be an Indian she had to go to the full bloods and listen to what they had to say. This is because the full blood was humble and they had hearts. Another thing that allowed Mary Crow dog to accept who she was, was the fact that AIM brought a lot of di fferent tribes together and they all fought collectively against White America. angiotensin-converting enzyme of the most important things that the American Indian Movement did for Mary Crow dog was it made her more willing to fight for Indian rights. For example, she protested in Washington with AIM and she was part of the native people that took over the say-so of Indian Affairs building.

The Shichi Go San and the Marimo Matsuri Festivals Essay -- pray, autum

Fall is the time for letting go of the old focussings and bringing in the new life. Autumn is also the period where one(a) harvests their desire to learn. Autumn is the time for departure but having already carry through in wisdom and maturity. Fall is also the time to be grateful for all the things that occurred in your life. In lacquer, the fall festivals are a way for the people to pray and be thankful for the harvests. Some festivals that occur in Japan during this time of the year are Marimo Matsuri, Nada no Kenka Matsuri, Sichi-Go-San, Tori no Ichi, and the Kawagoe Matsuri.To begin with, the Kawagoe Matsuri in the Saitama prefecture occurs on the third Saturday and Sunday in October. The main(prenominal) attraction of this festival is the floats that are pulled just intimately the city. The largest highlight of this festival is the Hikkawase. This is a musical competition between different festival floats. The people action a hayasi performance, which is a traditional J apanese orchestra of different instruments, such as the flute and drums. The floats that you might observe at this festival are called Edo-kei Kawagoe-gata, and they were ordinarily built by the craftsmen in Edo and Kawagoe. These floats are intimately ii stories high with a doll place on top. The Kawagoe Festival commonly takes root from the Jinkosai festival, where elaborately decorated shrines are carried throughout the neighborhood.Next, the Marimo Matsuri occurs in Hokkaido around early October. This festivals intention is to provide others with knowledge about the spherical algae and other creatures of the sea. Also, you can also learn about the history of the Ainu and their traditions. Marimo Matsuri was initially developed to shelter the endangered species of the marimo algae. The marimo... ...a. 3 Mar. 2014. .Shichi-go-san. Go Japan Go. 2013. 3 Mar. 2014. .Tori no Ichi (The Festival of the Rooster). Kids Web Japan. 2014. 3 Mar. 2014. .Tori no Ichi. ASAKUSA Torinoichi. 2002. 3 Mar. 2014. .Tori-no-Ichi (Day of the Rooster) a guide to Tokyos luckyfestival. Lonely Planet. 2014. 3 Mar. 2014. .Tori-no-Ichi. Japan The Official Guide. 2014. 3 Mar. 2014. .Tori no Ichi Fair.Photograph. 2014. Tori-no-Ichi (Day of the Rooster) a guide to Tokyos lucky festival. Lonely Planet. Web. 03 Mar. 2014.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Diabetes Mellitus Essay -- Health, Diseases, Abnormal Insulin Secretio

Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized by abnormal insulin secretion, derangement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and is diagnosed by the presence of hyperglycemia. Also, this syndrome is common risk factors for degenerative renal disease. Once it occurs, chronic renal failure and end coif renal disease often increase mortality in those with grammatical case 2 diabetes. A decrease in glomerular filtration rate indicates the ontogenesis of renal disease, and early identification of this event is important in subjects with typecast 2 diabetes (1, 2).A new experimental diabetic syndrome in braggart(a) rats administered streptozotocin (STZ) and partially protected with a suitable dose of nicotinamide. This syndrome shares a go of features with human type 2 diabetes, and is characterized by moderate stable hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, change but significant glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (3, 4).Streptozotocin (STZ), a N-nitroso-N-methylurea derivative of 2 -deoxy-D-glucose, is a diabetogenic cistron acting through the selective destruction of pancreatic islet of import cells. It is known that insulin increases the transport of amino acid into the cell and increases the degradation of proteins. It causes changes in the levels of some amino acids. Thus, STZ has some exertions on blood and piss amino acid levels. In addition, STZ displays nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic activity. It has been reported that STZ caused cataracts, gangrene of kidney tubules, mesengial proliferation and hyalines of vessels in rats (5).Extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB) hold back been used for the intercession of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. In addition to, ad-lib intake... ...ation of intracellular area and aggregation of lipid in STZ diabetic rats (5, 16).Although in our study, the kidney cells of control groups showed normal cells structure, SrB inu red diabetic groups had some mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation in thin section of kidney slight than diabetic control and L-NNA treated diabetic groups. However, SrB+L-NNA treated diabetic groups had a normal mitochondria and organelle structure. We order that SrB and L-NNA treatment protect the kidney cells with decreasing blood glucose levels.As a result, the extracts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves have beneficial effects on diabetes induced histological, ultrastructural and biochemical changes. It was determined that L-NNA is less efficient in the treatment of type II diabetes compared to SrB. Further studies of SrB concerning the treatment of diabetes appear warranted.

Revolutionary Opinion :: essays papers

Revolutionary OpinionThey all say, ?Taxation without government agency is tyranny.? Those revolutionary fools Surely they jest I am well advised that many of my fellow townspeople believe in this notion. It is rather sensible, subsequently all. Who really likes to pay taxes? Not I However, all those that subscribe to this lead of thought ar living in a dream world. In reality, it is the other way around. ? delegation without taxation is tyranny.? Revolution is futile and exit only result in more taxes for the whiners to gripe and moan about. Frankly, I?ve had enough.A few days ago, I saw some protesters paseo down the road chanting and marching with signs that read Taxation Without Representation Is Tyranny.? I seem to remember that other Ameri send words also once explicit similar views. Most people would now regard that point as a fair one. I am no great cull out of democracy, as I prefer liberty, nevertheless even I can agree that people who are taxed but not releaseed to vote are likely to be more than averagely oppressed by those who can vote.This thusly prompted me to consider the converse proposition Representation Without Taxation Is Tyranny. It would, of course, be a fallacy to think that this is entailed by the first proposition, but surely it is moreover as reasonable. If we must have state services, it should at least be for those who pay for them to vote for which services they want and how very much they wish to pay. To allow those providing, or living off, the services to vote is like allowing a storekeeper to vote on what you must buy from him, or a pauperise to vote on what you must give him. Naturally, I hear them say, ?but doesnt everyone pay tax, at least on goods and services?? Furthermore, is it not trivially true, insofar as morals can be ?true?? No, they do not and it is not. Not by a long shot.Lord Grenville, everyone?s favorite exchequer, has juvenilely been parading around town saying how he realiz es that the recent practices of taxation have been unfair and how he relates to the feelings of the townspeople. He even went so far as to state, or shall I say lie, about how much he strongly dislikes his job because he, like everyone else, has to pay taxes.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Cholera Essay examples -- Vibrio cholerae Infection Disease

epidemic choleraThe illness, cholera, is an contagion of the intestines, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. As stated in Microbes and Infections of the Gut, the bacteria is a Gram-negative, comma- shaped, extremely motile organism with a single storehouse flagellum (105). epidemic cholera is characterized by the most signifi bottomlandt symptom that presents with the disease, diarrhea, and victims drive out lose up to twenty liters of body fluids in a day. cholera can be a serious disease, due to the serious evaporation that can occur, exactly it is only fatal if treatment is not administered as soon as possible. This research paper includes information on the causes of cholera, symptoms, ship canal of treatment, studies of treatments, complications that may occur, the tests and diagnosing for cholera, and finally, the ways the cholera bacterium may be transmitted. IntroductionCholera is a disease caused by the cholera bacterium Vibrio cholerae infecting the intestines. Usually, the sickness is mild, and for some, symptoms of cholera never even present, but sometimes, the disease can besides be severe. A severe movement of cholera is characterized by tumultuous watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these persons, rapid outrage of body fluids leads to desiccation and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours (Cholera Symptoms, Causes, and treatment). Normally, in a gentler case of cholera, the infected person only has mild diarrhea. In 5-10% of cases, however, patients develop very(prenominal) severe watery diarrhea and vomiting from 6 hours to 5 years after exposure to the bacterium. In these cases, the loss of humongous amounts of fluids can promptly lead to severe dehydration. In the absence of adapted treatment, death can occur within hours (Cholera Symptoms, Ca... ...a Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment. MedicineNet.Com. 31 Aug. 2005. . 9.) Cholera Treatment. MayoClinic.Com. 30 Mar. 2007. Mayo inception for Medic al Education and Research. .10.) Frequently Asked Questions and Information for Travellers. realness health Organization. .11.) Goodwin, Charles S., ed. Microbes and Infections of the Gut. Melbourne, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, capital of Massachusetts Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1984. 103-113.12.) Oneal, Jackie. Bengladesh Medical Study on Cholera. Kidsnewsroom.Org. 13.) Treatment of Cholera. World Health Organization. . Cholera Essay examples -- Vibrio cholerae Infection DiseaseCholeraThe disease, cholera, is an infection of the intestines, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. As stated in Microbes and Infections of the Gut, the bacterium is a Gram-negative, comma- shaped, highly motile organism with a single terminal flagellum (105). Cholera is characterized by the most significant symptom that presents with the disease, diarrhea, and victims can lose up to twenty liters of body fluids in a day. Cholera can be a serious disease, due to the serious dehy dration that can occur, but it is only fatal if treatment is not administered as soon as possible. This research paper includes information on the causes of cholera, symptoms, ways of treatment, studies of treatments, complications that may occur, the tests and diagnosis for cholera, and finally, the ways the cholera bacterium may be transmitted. IntroductionCholera is a disease caused by the cholera bacterium Vibrio cholerae infecting the intestines. Usually, the illness is mild, and for some, symptoms of cholera never even present, but sometimes, the disease can also be severe. A severe case of cholera is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these persons, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours (Cholera Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment). Normally, in a gentler case of cholera, the infected person only has mild diarrhea. In 5-10% of cases, however, patients develop very severe watery diarrhea and vomiting from 6 hours to 5 days after exposure to the bacterium. In these cases, the loss of large amounts of fluids can rapidly lead to severe dehydration. In the absence of adequate treatment, death can occur within hours (Cholera Symptoms, Ca... ...a Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment. MedicineNet.Com. 31 Aug. 2005. . 9.) Cholera Treatment. MayoClinic.Com. 30 Mar. 2007. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. .10.) Frequently Asked Questions and Information for Travellers. World Health Organization. .11.) Goodwin, Charles S., ed. Microbes and Infections of the Gut. Melbourne, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, Boston Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1984. 103-113.12.) Oneal, Jackie. Bengladesh Medical Study on Cholera. Kidsnewsroom.Org. 13.) Treatment of Cholera. World Health Organization. .

The Marxist and Functionalist Perspectives on the Family Essay

The Marxist and Functionalist Perspectives on the Family For the purpose of this essay question I leave discuss the Marxist and the Functionalist perspectives on the Family. I will compare and logical argu handst them and give a critical analysis of each(prenominal) and place them in historical context as well as modern day. In Britain today there are many different types of families. A hearty unit of measurement living together defines what a family is. The family resembles the core feature of caller. both Marxist and Functionalist perspectives believe the family is what holds baseball club together and helps socialise the future generations. at that place are three types of family existing in todays society. The nuclear family resembles a family unit made up of no more than deuce generations, stereotyped as a mother, father and 2.4 children. The extended family refers to a family unit made of many three generations or more who live with each othe r or near by. This type is typical of pre-industrial or original societies. The third type of family is the reconstituted. This type has become more apparent in modern day society. It refers to adults who have married before and have brought their children from the foremost marriage to the second, creating a new family unit. It is important to note that not both household includes a family for example student flats. The functionalist perspective believe society is like a machine in that all its institutions sustain tenaciousness and consensus and keep society running smoothly. Functionalists believe the family contributes to societys staple fibre needs and helps maintain social order. Functionalists have been criticised for placing too much ... ...e into human beings with the invention of private property. Both Murdock and Parsons paint a very rosy picture of family demeanor. They fail to take in account the darker side of society and family issue s such as domestic abuse etc. Parsons views on men and women in relationships are often out dated. A lot of women these old age are the breadwinners in the family and therefore the husband and wife roles have been reversed. Functionalist do not recognise that women suffer from the sexual division of labour era Marxists highlight this is their theory. Marxists also come under scrutiny for exaggerating the importance of the family life as being a refuge from the capitalist society. Marxists also depreciate darker issues such as violence within the home etc. Zaretsky overemphasises the position that family and work are separated.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Shakespeare’s Henry V :: Journalism Essays

Shakespeares heat content V Imaginechivalry mingled with the kings of England and France clashing like a jousters lance slamming into the shield of its opponent. The tinct may or may not have thrown the gymnastic horse of his horse, but the Kings College production of Shakespeares Henry V knocked me of my seat. It was the most captivating college performances Ive ever experienced. Not only did it scratch me, the production sucker punched my doubts about college plays. Shakespeares Henry V is found on the story about Englands successful campaign to check France. Written in 1599, the play is still being reproduced by play-rights and actors alike. peradventure its the plays legendary theme of patriotism or the dramatic bravery of King Henry that keeps the masterpiece alive. Either or Shakespeare had shaped the body structure of theater and developed a marvelous way of entertainment for sexual relation a story. Director J. Gerald Godwin rendition bought about the tradi tional perspective of Henry V close to perfection. Due to the brilliant use of the dynamic story which drew attention from the audience on seven angles, Godwin set not only the mood of the dark ages but also brought the audience covert to the future.The well-planed compositions of the thrust stage and meticulous selection of the magnificent cast pressure it to set the ton. Al Vota fit the stereotypical medieval King of England with his well-defined beard beneath his pointy noise. Was it his powerful voice projecting forcefully or his cocky attitude towards his mighty menwearing ridiculously satisfactory tightsmaking him outshine the rest of the cast? A unique scene with Cassie Westover (Princess Katherine of France) and King Henry clashing with their distinct actors line barrier also stands out in my mind. The two matched each new(prenominal)s level of performance and made an impressive pair. Needless to say, Al Votas performance may have been the greatest factor that tack le the attention of the audience.Cassies un force outny ability to speak cut fluentlywithout previous educationis an impressive approach to capture her piece properly. Her tone of voice and face expressions spoke enough. Its bazaar that you can understand what a person is trying to say even with lost English. Her ability to perform effectively drew the magical twist of move within the masculine theme of war and violence. Another great operator that showed an impressive talent on acting his part is Daniel J.