Monday, September 30, 2019

Communication Process Paper Essay

Communication process is a very important aspect with the help of which people send messages verbal including sentences, words, and messages nonverbal including physical setting, facial expression, and behavior. Communication patterns have changed because of changing nature of interaction between people. Communication allows business to coordinate and unify common goals. An open communication policy in business where the employees may come to the supervisors and voice his or her likes as well as dislikes. The business will have a workable environment for everyone. As the message passes through this medium, there is noise and which changes the message into something different from what was sent. These are otherwise known as the barriers to effective communication. Noise can be static or anything that distracts from the intended massage. Example, if there a meeting going on in the workplace and two employees are talking in the background. An individual will become distracted of what th e meeting is about. Communication process Paper The climates in most workplace are cool if it is an inside job. So individual may be comfortable communicating with one and another. Some people believe the environment tan make a difference with the way an individual communicate. Communication is vital in the workplace and it the primary means to convey the proper message. Most jobs have shift work and needs to communicate from one shift to another. This may be done by verbal or written in paper. A business climate most likely creates within levels of management and spreads from there. The strength and weakness of any organization are only good or bad as the individuals who work there. If there an open policy where employees can communication with his or her supervisors as they please. This procedure will make the workplace environment workable for everyone. Every employee in the workplace should voice his or her opinion toward the supervisor without been afraid of the outcome. Everyone has some weaknesses and strengths in communication as a result of psychological and personal peculiarities, and every day communication patterns. Verbal written communication is my strength. My weakness is nonverbal communication because in some situations I am not sure what behavior patterns I should follow, for instance, speaking with strangers, or the police. Sometimes I believe cultural or social barriers communicating with others, I have strong verbal communication skills because I spend much time communicating with my friends on the Internet. This way I can communicate with several people at the same time, and save time on phone calls or visiting them. This form of communication is very popular because it transmits information to the individuals and receives reply rapidly. I have good written skills and can clearly express opinion in several sentences. This strength is logical, concise, and informative messages, which help the recipient to grasp the idea at once. Good written skills used in the criminal justice system and other business. Years ago the senior management committee of some business, there strategies for doing everything from changing policies to dealing with employees discussed behind closed doors. Once those decisions made by management, the supervisors were asked to put those decisions into effect. The employees had little to no input on those matters. The employees did as they were told or had to find a new job. Today some management team members listen to what the employees have to say before making a decision on changing the policies. Most business in the present encourages employees to take an active part in their company. The employees who work on production line may know some ways to improve the lines. Some manager may pass out certain type of rewards for his or her ideals. Communication process with employees can be a difficult task. It may take knowing what an individual have to say to communicate in a way to receive desired result. Communications to employees come from several areas within the organization, the director, human resources, the program manager, and other management team. Every employee need to know what is happening within the company. The company will not achieve if the employees are not contribute what expected of him or her. That why a well-organized internal communication strategy required to create the ideal mindset within the company. Reference Communicating Effectively with Employees Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from http://www. employee

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Medical Career vs. Fashion Design

Fashion Design Career As teenagers, high scholars or even college students, we always struggle with big questions†¦ What career am I going to pick? , What career suits me better? , Am I going to be able to do it?. We have been through those stages of adolescence, at least, I've past through them, and to be honest, sometimes those questions doesn't give you a concrete answer until you give a try and risk yourself into something new.Sometimes o have to look for pro/con to see what's best for you, that's why I'm looking for an answer through this essay. Medical career ; Fashion design are very different, but they do have some similarities. The medical career is a great profession. It career requires many skills and time to be successful. Behind a great doctor, is a hard and long Medical Career, there's a lot of sacrifices you have to do to success in that area.Medical career requires time and dedication, the length of the career is 7 years and 4 extra depending on the specialty o w ant, some specialties are 7 years long like neurosurgeon for example. After medical career you are required to work in a hospital or a private clinic, by becoming a doctor, you learn or gain the ability to save life's and cure illness, being able to help others makes you feel better despite of the salary of a Doctor, which most of the times is pretty high.But most of Medical School Students doesn't sacrifice sleep or eating hours for money, they really do it for solidarity. Fashion design is a creative and rewarding profession. It career requires a creative pen mind, a good point of view and time to practice. As we know, fashion industry is constantly innovating and creating new things, ideas, styles. It's not a relevant thing or area, but for some people It becomes a life style.Fashion designers workplace can be in a lot of places depending on what they want to do, they can work as designers, visual merchandisers, stylists, image consulter, make up stylist, chief editor of a magazi ne, even an assistant to a celebrity, to become a good Fashion designer, you need to have a good eye, creativity and the skills to improve something to a better ay or even to create something wonderful from scratch. During the career you spent more time in the practical part than in the lecture room, the salaries of a fashion designer depends on the Job they get.Medical Career and Fashion Design have some similarities despite of the types of the career. Both careers have things in common. Fashion industry and Medical area are very competitive when it gets to find a good Job after finishing the career, you need to know how to work as a team, both careers requires different type of clothes, in a capital there's always Doctors wearing Blue clothes or white scrubs, and mostly of fashion designers always wear important brands clothes or the latest fashion style.Salaries between these careers are different, and it depends of how good you are in your area. Although both careers are similar , they also have many differences. Seeking a career can be difficult for so many people, mostly teenagers or young adults. Some people Just look for what they suit better, but for me, the best career is the one that you choose with your heart based on your learning skills.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Risk Management Assignment (BP) British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Essay

Risk Management Assignment (BP) British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon - Essay Example PART A Introduction Where the world is growing and enhancing at a phenomenal pace, new, modern and contemporary technologies have emerged and growing rapidly in every field of life, which has transformed the ways of living as an outcome. This has also affected the world of commerce and has allowed the businesses to move ahead in a new direction. Investments and returns are the key aspects for a businessperson when setting up the business. However, a business always accompanies innumerable risk factors with it, whether it is the competitor threat, emerging new prospects in the industry, variations in the economic conditions, changing values of the goods or services or the fluctuations in foreign currencies. Risk is the probability or the possibility that a particular step or decision gives an adverse conclusion or makes a loss (Great Britain, pp.1, 2007). More or less, risk is a factor that all businesses enterprise carries; however, the extent and scope of risk varies from business t o business. In the old times, when the businesses were involved in more of manual activities, risk was one of the factors that were at a high level. However, nowadays, the risk factors involved in the business can easily come under measurement through the advancement of technologies and processes. Risk Management A course of action that determines, button down, breakdown, investigate, and either acquire and acknowledge or alleviate risk or ambiguities when making a decision or while investing comes under reference of Risk Management.  The aftereffects or the chain reaction may lead to huge losses if the organizations do not carry out the process of risk management in a commensurate way. One of the major examples that prove the importance of risk management is the Financial Crisis that happened in the year 2008. Through the process of risk management, the intensity of risk coupled with the business and its functions can come under measurement, and course of actions can undertake to eradicate or play down the risks. The businesses execute the process of risk management in order to spot the circumstances, conditions, or actions that may lead to adversity so that preventive measures can come under implementation in order to lessen the risks involved to overcome the consequences that may result in the catastrophe. The determination of risks through a systematic, planned, and apparent approach provides a business to evaluate, quantify, and give high importance to the risks so that adapted and pertinent steps can come under accomplishment to diminish them (Crouhy, Galai, Mark, pp. 37-54, 2006). The organizations’ prime goal and vision is to generate revenue, make profits for themselves and other stakeholder, augment their worth in the market, and create a good will. Therefore, one cannot neglect the fact that risk management is of utmost importance for any organization. In order for a business to flourish and prosper, risk management is one of the essential and elementary aspects and functions that a business should consider and undergo. Risk management is

Friday, September 27, 2019

Further Education Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Further Education - Personal Statement Example In studying, there is continuity of gained knowledge within the confines of class lectures, and outside it. As a result, I become a better rounded person who deals easier with the challenges of work and social demands. As I work and socialize better, fruitful interaction are expected, and in return, could help me shape up internally. Healthy communication gained from work and social environments results in a better-balanced psyche and body. If I could perform my job well and look forward to a better and more fulfilling job, then, it would translate into a good night sleep, inspired daily living, and smooth interaction with my colleagues at school. Bandura (1994) presented a very interesting phrase of "self efficacy" as an individual's "beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Such beliefs produce these diverse effects through four major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, affective and selection processes." I personally perceive further education as a means to improve my efficiency, and in this way, I am confident that I can achieve a certain degree of success which I have conjured up in my ambitious mind so that as Bandura stated, "efficacy enhance

Thursday, September 26, 2019


MANAGING AND LEADING STRATEGIC CHANGE - Assignment Example In the next one hundred years, advancements in information technology and communication promise to transform the business landscape in a significant manner. As a result, the success of managers will depend on their ability to identify the skills needed to thrive in a changing business landscape and taking the necessary steps to acquire them (Quast 2011). The paper has adopted a broad approach to the issue. The move is influenced by the realization that changes in the business environment affect all the industries. Consequently, the best way to have a significant impact in the society is to evaluate the issue in a manner that is useful to a broad section of business leaders. An evaluation of the society reveals key trends influencing the change landscape. In this section, those trends will be addressed. In addition, it is necessary to address the best way for business managers to respond to these changes. The first trend involves the creation of a global village. The current physical boundaries are bound to be overwhelmed by the borderless internet. A significant drop in the cost of computing devices and bandwidth has led to a significant increase in the number of internet users. Prominent individuals and established organizations have joined forces to increase the adoption of the internet. For example, the founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg has created in an effort to get all people online (Eugene 2014). Should such efforts achieve a modest result, then a large part of the world will have access to the internet. Business organizations would have the opportunity to communicate to consumers from different parts of the world through social media platforms. Similarly, they will be able access a large market through the adoption of e-commerce. However, the negative consequences involve increased competition among businesses. Furthermore, the cost of starting a business that can disrupt established

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Canadian Courts and Criminal Trial Procedures Essay

Canadian Courts and Criminal Trial Procedures - Essay Example This fact has been affirmed by extensive research conducted by many organizations. The Law reforms commission of Canada addressed the jury selection process in its 1980 working paper The Jury in Criminal trials, and its 1982 Report, The jury. The Commissions basic conclusion was that no drastic revision of the process was called for (Granger, 153). "There is a good reason historic, political, intellectual, and pragmatic - to retain the jury system" (Law reforms commission of Canada) Furthermore, the protocols established through common law nullify the possibility of bias being induced into jurors. In R. v. Caldough, it was established that, any communications with jurors are to be considered an interference with justice (Granger, 157). This was further expanded on in R. v. Papineau, where the court ruled that such conduct was to be considered contempt of court, and obstruction of justice (Schreck, Web Source) These rules apply whether the juror has been sworn, discharged, or whether the prospective juror has just merely been summoned to serve. A violation of the rule can result in discharge, of the juror, a mistrial, a citation for contempt of court, or a criminal charge (Granger, 157). Also, "a juror must not only be impartial, but manifestly be seen to be impartial" (Granger, 158). These various protocols, while observed by some as extreme, ensure that jurors remain unbiased, and as such, provide the accused with a fair trial. Supplementing these protocols, counsels have the ability to ensure that the entire jury panel or individual jurors do not have predispositions on the case. Firstly, they can remove jurors that have been influenced by the media. The [counsel] may [also] challenge the jury panel only on the ground of partiality, fraud or willful misconduct on the part of the sheriff or other officer by whom the panel was returned. (C. C. C, s. 629(1)) Counsel can also challenge any number of individual jurors on grounds that the juror(s) is not indifferent between the crown and the defense, has been convicted of an offence, is an alien, is unable to, even with the services provided under section 627, perform properly the duties of a juror (C. C. C, s. 638(1)). Therefore, the presence of these procedures and protocols, prior to, during, and after the jury selection process, ensure that juries are as neutral as possible, and as such provide the fairest trial achievable to the accused. The jury system and trials by juries provide protections to numerous aspects of the Canadian justice system. Firstly, they provide Canadian citizens with protection against arbitrary and oppressive laws and law enforcement (Granger, 8), and in the process, help us make better laws that further promote peace and order. "Juries have been argued to be a check on the power of government, represented by prosecutors and judges" (Barro, 20). Jurors are a representation of the wants of the citizens, and as such, their findings in cases often encompass what the society expects from the law. In other words, they help bring what the common citizen wants from the laws, to the laws. Secondly, jury trials ensure us our civil liberties and fundamental freedoms

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

International Market Entry and Development Essay - 5

International Market Entry and Development - Essay Example These diverse markets differ with the local ones in terms of the needs of customers, their buying patterns, the cultures and traditions followed by the customers etc. The process for market research starts with defining the problem and planning out the objectives of the research. This is often the most difficult step of this process as this step gives a direction to the entire research process. Once the problems and objectives have been identified, the researchers must establish the extent of information needed and develop a plan for gathering the needed information along with the management plan for the research. The research objectives must be transformed into information needs which are clear and specific. The research plan can include the collection of either secondary or primary data. Secondary data is the data which has already been conducted before for some other purpose whereas primary data is one which is to be collected for the specific purpose of the international market r esearch. For international market research, the researchers need to carry out primary research due to the lack of secondary data. The next step is to actually implement the research plan and this involves collecting, processing as well as analyzing information. This step of the process is the most expensive step and needs to be carried out with a lot of attention. The researchers must analyze the collected data and tabulate results. The last step is to interpret the findings in order to find conclusions and report it to the management for further action. With the increase in globalization, companies have to sell products not only in their domestic countries but also in international countries and markets. The companies have realized that they need to change some aspects of their products in order to cater to the specific needs of the buyers in international markets. This is known as

Monday, September 23, 2019

Change Management in GE, Ford Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Change Management in GE, Ford - Assignment Example Jeffrey R Immelt, the chairman, and CEO of GE has been trying to bring about a cultural revolution. He has been on a mission to transform the hard driving, process-oriented company GE into one that is steeped in creativity and wired for growth (Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson, 2009, P.143). He wanted to move GE`s average organic growth rate for increasing the revenue that comes from their existing operations rather than dealing with currency fluctuations. Immelt has initiated the change process by welcoming outsiders into highest ranks GE made it compulsory for every employee to have at least a green belt training and wanted them to be involved in one quality control project to be eligible for promotion in the management level. Black belts and master belts were awarded for a higher level of management.GE ensured that the best employees were trained for the black belts and master belts(Bertels, Rath & Strong, 2003,P.263) At GE management meetings, head of all businesses were encouraged to ta lk about the new initiatives in their own units so that the ideas and best practices could be transferred among the various businesses(Harvard Business School Press,2010,P.25) The business heads speak mainly about the methods that are used in every individual center for decreasing cost and increasing efficiency. Communication was emphasized in all direction i.e. top down, bottom up and lateral communication. Effective communication has helped in promoting GE`s informal culture. Every employee in GE is encouraged to express their opinion candidly to their superiors (Nilakant, Ramnarayan, 2006, P.70).The GE Change Acceleration Process measures the effectiveness of change as the product of quality (the technical aspect of change) and the acceptance (by those who embrace it). The only way to get a very high score is to score high on both the factors. For years GE has applied this thinking to the Six Sigma by giving change management methods and tools to the leaders and trained employees .

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft of Song of Solomon Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Draft of Song of Solomon - Essay Example It is about enslavement and the people who tried to escape slavery and try to find their roots back in Africa. In this book the protagonist is Milkman, a young man brought up in a wealthy family but with parents who do not love each other anymore. This is shown when Milkman’s father hits Ruth. Milkman complains to his friend guitar that certain things are making him angry and getting to him. He says, â€Å"I don’t know, guitar. Things seem to be getting to me, you know?†(Morrison, 152).Macon loves money and he loves property. His money has made him oblivious to other people’s problems. He wants his son to be just like him and surely Milkman behaves just like his father. He’s wealthy background makes him oblivious of the black oppression. Furthermore, he has money to spend on women thus treats them with little disregard. This paper is going to discuss how Milkman overcame this lifestyle to become a fully transformed man. Milkman is flawed and this is enhanced by the amount of money his father has. As a matter of fact it is the wealthy background that gives milkman his attitude. Just like his father, milkman is obsessed with money and tends to reason like a white man.Milkman believes in the power of money to gain him freedom and power in life. This is because he uses money to get the things he needs like buying alcohol, women and having a good time, thus he only believes I the power of money. In line with this thinking, he becomes a rude, mean and a dangerous person. His dangerous personality is witnessed when he hits his father for hitting his mother. We see him complain to his friend Guitar ,â€Å"Your daddy slapped your mama, right?†, â€Å"Right.Right.† (Morrison,152).However, he is not dangerous in a bad way like in being violent and murderous. He is just a man who likes to have control of situations and want things to happen his way. Milkman is also a womanizer a trait he enjoyed with guitar his poor friend. He has money and money buys him

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Feminism in Virginia Woolf Essay Example for Free

Feminism in Virginia Woolf Essay Virginia Woolf is regarded to be a modern literary figure. She was an English novelist and essayist who was a significant icon in London literary society. She was a member of the Bloomsbury group. Her famous novels are â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway†, â€Å"To The Lighthouse† and â€Å"Orlando† and the essay â€Å"A Room of One’s Own. † Contemporary feminists regard Woolf as an advocate of the movement. This paper will analyze Woolf’s background and some of her works to bring up points of her beliefs on the matter. Growing up in London, Woolf was influenced by a wide circle of Victorian society. Her father, Sir Leslie Stephen was an editor, critic and biographer. He had conections to numerous British writers including William Thackeray. Novelists such as George Elliot, Henry James, Julia Margaret Cameron, George Henry Lewes and James Russell Lowell often dropped by in their house. (Maze, 18, 1995) Woolf and her sister Vanessa were sexually abused by their half-brothers Gerald and George. According to modern scholars, this traumatizing experience triggered her nervous breakdowns. The deaths of her mother Julia Prinsep Stephen in 1895, her half-sister Stella in 1897 and her father in 1904 added salt to the wound. Woolf was institutionalized after her most alarming breakdown. (Maze, 20, 1995) Despite her mood swings, mental breakdowns and decline in social functioning, Woolf’s abilities to write remained. Biographers claim that Woolf’s marriage to Leonard Woolf was not consummated. According to them, she was a lesbian. Nonetheless, the couple had a tight relationship and often collaborated in the literature industry. Leonard Woolf was the publisher while Virginia Woolf was the writer. Hogarth Press published a majority of Woolf’s works. (Maze, 23, 1995) Woolf had a relationship with Vita Sackville West, an English poet and novelist. Their affair lasted for two years but thry remained friends. Other relationships with women were Madge Vaughn (the inspiration for â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway) and Violet Dickinson, a composer. There were also debates on whether Vanessa and Virginia also had an intimate and incestuous relationships or they were just close. (Maze, 24, 1995) Modern science explains Woolf’s disorder as a case of bipolar personality. On the verge of another nervous breakdown, Woolf commited suicide by drowning herself in the River Ouse. (Bowlby, 32, 1989) Students concentrating on Woolf and her works often analyze the lesbian and feminist themes in her novels, essays and short stories. For example, â€Å"A Room of One’s Own† discusses the difficulty female intellectuals and writers had to go through a time when men had more economic and legal power. What was instore for women in society and in education were unknown. This work exploited the obstacles, challenges and the anxieties of Woolf and other women writers during the 1930s. (Bowlby, 35, 1989) Women writers were afraid to write what they believed to be the â€Å"truth† because they were afraid that the academic world, which was made up by a majority of men, would disclaim their writings and describe it as mere opinions. A major problem of women writers in that decade was that tehyw ere not taken seriously. There was a disparity between male and female writers. The latter was said to be inferior. (Bowlby, 29, 1989). Woolf was a woman ahead of her time. One of the points she wanted to present was that a woman could be more than a housewife. She elaborated this by writing that women could perform the conventional duties in the household and have a career, in her case, an author, at the same time. She compared women who wait for the men to come home after work as objects, simply because they meet was was expected of them. (Lounsberry, 3, 1998) â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway† discussed themes on madness and feminism through two characters – Clarissa Dalloway and Septimus Warren Smith. Clarissa represents economic and sexual repression whereas Septimus is the remedy to depression and insanity. Septimus’ suicide was an allusion to Woolf’s constant struggle with manic depression. Like the character, Woolf also hallucinated that the birdes were singing Greek. There was also an instance when Woolf tried to throw herself out of the window, the exact same way she wrote Septimus’ death. â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway† also touched bisexuality through Sally Seton, Clarissa’s partner. (Lotz, 26, 2003) â€Å"To The Lighthouse† presented a new method on understanding thoughts. This is Woolf’s masterpiece and one of her best autobiographies. She suggested that by understanding thoughts, the writer must spend a good amount of time listening to her thoughts and studying how her words and her emotions affect her mind with what she saw. (Lotz, 27, 2003) In order to look into Woolf’s take on feminism and gender equality closer, scholars carefully analyze Woolf’s influential novel â€Å"Orlando. † This is a semi-biographical novel that was inspired by Woolf’s passionate relations with Sackville-West. It is the story of Orlando, a young English man who didn’t want to grow old. One day, he woke up and realized that he was turned into a woman. He still had the same intellect and same personality but he had a woman’s body. (Lotz, 28, 2003) Through this work, Woolf wrote a semi-autobiography that presented lesbian love to its readers. Because of the delicate subject matter, â€Å"Orlando† was banned in the United Kingdom. Also, â€Å"Orlando† started the trend of the non-fiction genre in literature. The novel is both transgender and transgenre. (Lotz, 29, 2003) Woolf is the first activist who vied for woman’s suffrage. Through her works, she changed the views and ideologies of women writers. Because of her, women were no longer annonymous. Most importantly, they were noticed and their works were regarded to be as the same level as those of male writers. (Lounsberry, 4, 1998) She set the groundwork for transformative social changes. Her beliefs which she wrote from 1920s to 1940 clearly indicated a movement that was heading toward the direction for women’s suffrage rights. Woolf’s writings on feminisms as indicated in her public letters and â€Å"A Society† assessed the development of the feminist subversion by male scholars. (Lounsberry, 5, 1998) â€Å"Three Guineas† is Woolf’s essay that has the most explicit and clear statement on feminism. It provides a meticulous and well-researched observation on the subject matter. Woolf also presented her relations with different women’s organizations which share her agenda. (Lotz, 30, 2003) This is Woolf’s feminist work that is uncompromising. She assaults the domination and privilege of men toward women. The details that are elaborated and sustained from beginning to end argue that women are still capable of maintaining a fervid argument which is relevant for feminism then and now. Woolf might have neglected class and sexuality in some of her feminist works because this was a problem during her time. However, she does her best to present to her readers her objectives on why she wrote her three guineas – which are democratization, education and public professional acivity. (Lotz, 31, 2003) By analyzing these three guineas and the possiblity of what can happen if a woman takes on the important roles that are associated to these, Woolf enriches the understanding of females everywhere. She takes into account the evolution and the development of feminism by combating the image that had been founded by males. (Lotz, 32, 2003) Woolf’s creations are long, scholarly and complex but when read with a feminist perspective, these are impressive and takes the reader into the author’s personality, convictions and beliefs. If she were alive now, she would prefer to be called a humanist than a feminist. Simply because she was not obsessed with women, she was merely hoping that women would have the same rights, honors and privileges as of men. By compassionately exploring Woolf’s feminism, literary scholars poke into her sexuality and psychology that surround and precede in all her works. She was once quoted saying that ‘the triumph of learning is that it leaves something done solidly forever. ’ She did exactly just that – with her works and her movement toward feminism. Works Cited Maze, John R, â€Å"Virginia Woolf: Feminism, Creativity and the Unconscious†, pp. 18 – 24, Free Inquiry, Vol 15, Spring 1995 Bowlby, Rachel, â€Å"Feminist Destinations†, pp 32 – 29, National Review, Vol 41, November 24, 1989 Lounsberry, Barbara, â€Å"The Tales We Tell†, pp 3 – 5, New Statesman, Vol 127, January 16, 1998 Lotz, Amanda D, â€Å"Communicating Third Wave Feminism and New Social Movements†, pp 26 – 32, Women and Language, , Vol 26. 2003,

Friday, September 20, 2019

DELL Company Anlaysis

DELL Company Anlaysis Dell Computers have been the leaders in computer world for more than two decades. Dell has been empowering countries, communities, customers and people everywhere to use technology to realize their dreams and possiblities. Since the first Dell PC was introduced in 1986, Dell has continued to shape the industry by breaking new ground and pioneering critical developments in home, small business and enterprise computing. The Dell business connects with more than 5.4 billion customers every day with earnings of $14.9 billion comprising a net profit of $584 million. Dells continuous research and development (RD) have proven efforts to reach the globe, which is driven by some of the industrys foremost product designers and engineers. The core of Dell computers is always been in innovation approach with a commitment to deliver new and better solutions and technologies that fulfils and meets demands and customer needs. They accept Partnerships with varied industry such as software, hardware and component suppliers and by generating a uniquely broad perspective on the computing world and the accessories. Dell believes in innovations which begin in-house supported by global team of top engineers, product designers and technical experts. Along with a team effort with Dells strategic partners to formulate and implement the different strategies. Their mission is to deliver innovative and cost-effective solutions that meet todays customer requirements and innovative work seamlessly is carried out in existing environments and their products. Dell is uniquely positioned into the market which has a strong impact of and on the industry trends. They maintain strong internal and in-house development capabilities. They have a strategy to be partners, rather than to compete, with top technology suppliers and manufacturers. They enable industry standards and technologies through industry groups and strategic partners. In such a way Dell innovates and delivers value and needs of customers. Customer needs analysis for Intercontinental Hotel Group The IHG brand itself owns or services more than 4,000 hotels and also has approximate of $1bn fund to support owners who purchase a franchise from IHG. IHG doesnt own many hotels outright as it had and has a wide focus on franchising. IHG provides the back-up for others as they have an amazing network to bind up with global brands. The IHG Company specialises in mid-scale hotels, along with the Park Lane InterContinental which is a high class with a suite complete with cinema available for  £4,000-a-night. Both business and leisure customers are vital to the success of the group and the former is starting to pick up. The IHG brand has a varied brands of hotels from INTERCONTINENTAL as business class, HOLIDAY INN as resort and inns, STAYBRIDGE suites as leisure hotels which fulfils the needs of having a varied variety of customers for the business varying from leisure travellers to business class personnel. So does the IHG offer a varied variety of brands to the customer ranging from 7 brands offering varied class of service to meet the needs of customers having a pioneering strategy to achieve pioneering position in the competitive market the basic design of IHG by franchising the brands in different sectors provides a variety for different customers and fulfil their needs Corporate Strategy for INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL GROUP Being a service oriented and pioneering company the major corporate strategies can be listesd as follows: an continuous audit of the clients culture, image and communications strategy an analysis of the existing use of resources, and research into further opportunities; the development of an awareness with the client of the potential higher value through promotional strategies the provision of a brief overview for positioning, developed in the same way as a logo and design system for a same value as of a corporate identity To create a collaborative decision-making process to agree on effectiveness of channels and methods for reaching target audiences through the creation of new identity within a consistent customer satisfaction Competitive priorities of IHG Managing complexity and speeding development Delivering quality and at fast pace Managing technological changes in Hospitality sector Right tools and right people to be targeted Transformation of operating processes Building up a customer centric position With the above competitive priorities IHG should focus on being customer centric as to cope up with the increasing competition in the current hospitality industry which is a beginning step towards the quality management Customer needs analysis for DELL Computers The Dell computers have a focus on customer centric market. The Dell computers have very strong market varying of customers from home users to the official market to the corporate clientele. The each and every sector has a varied demand and need for their requirements. Dell is the first major computer manufacturer to ban the export of nonworking electronics to developing countries as part of our global electronics disposal policy building up a good brand image within the market. They offer the customers to choose to do business with more than 60,000 partners registered with Dell and certified to operate as our agents. Thus having a customer centric market focuses on the consumer needs. Dell computers believe in continuous innovation which is one of more key factors as their being constant changes in the technology and advancements in day to day life there is increase in needs of different customers which is satisfied the current operating procedures of the company Corporate strategies of Dell Computers Following up with Corporate Responsibility Considering the competition in the market along with the others computer companies the few corporate strategies of Dell Inspire innovation and innovate our team members to live company purposes : As usual dell computers have been promoting innovation since long time so as to promote the technical as well as support team and cope up with increasing needs of customers with advancements in technology Continue building up trust through the positive and meaningful differences the company is making on the communities and the planet : The commitment of Dell computers have been constantly creating a difference in technology and innovating the technology Recognize where they can make the most measurable impact and align the commitments : To recognize by the sensitive evaluation of the customers as being a customer centric strategic organization and measure the impacts would be occurring on the commitments to the specific market segment. Develop measures for reporting the progress and media to communicate that progress: The motive would be to evaluate the performance and make evaluations at timely basis and to communicate the results to compare with the expected goals to be achieved Competitive Priorities of Dell Computers: Focusing on best available solution instead of just focusing on technology Having a alternative focus the available solutions to the improvement of technology instead of also just having a focus on innovation Teaching and promoting innovative thinking Promoting in-house innovations instead of hiring and having a partnering with the technical consultants Getting feedback from customers and suppliers Getting feedbacks from the customers should be of mere importance as being a customer centric focus it will help in making continuous improvements and meeting the requirements Supply Chain management of IHG The InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) outsources its management of supply chain and has signed a new five year contract with Supply Chain Management, (SCM, LLC) to manage the supply chain function at and of IHG. SCM, LLCs responsibilities will include North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean. With supplying and looking over the work process of the inter brands as well as on supply chain of specific brand SCM.LLC manages the supply chain function for both IHGs corporate and owned/managed / franchised by hotel group, including the major process of sourcing, negotiating, contracting and interfacing with suppliers to maintain cost and quality control. In addition, SCM will manage the relationship with IHGs procurement service company. SCM also helps IHG with staff serving the account will be housed on-site at IHG offices in the major locations of the brand. Enhancing relations with the suppliers and standardizing products and services by following an efficient supply chain. SCM provides strategic solutions for expense management that enable clients to achieve maximum and sustainable savings through a variety of customized services. These services include cost management, spend analysis, process re-engineering, demand management, sourcing of products and services, negotiation, contract development and administration, and staff training. This outsourcing helps IHG to look onto the performa nce and evaluate it and thus follow up with the changes to be made. Constraint Management of INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL GROUP Following with the few constraints from the SCM (Supply Chain Management) review. IHG (InterContinental Hotels Group) has launched a new Price Optimization module globally that integrates local market demand forecasting, publicly available competitive data analysis and price and revenue management system and helps IHGs hotels determine the best daily price. While traditional revenue management systems select rates based on demand predictions, IHGs Price Optimization module has a price sensitive modeling process that allows the system to continuously balance rates, occupancy and guest pricing preferences in a way that increases revenue opportunities regardless of demand. It makes easier for the large group of hotels to make competitive pricing decisions IHG hotels with brands that include Holiday Inn and Holiday Inn Express which ranges from low budget hotels to hi class leisure and luxury brands which makes it important to be concerned with financing of the brands. Thus seeing positive results following the system generated price and balancing the revenues. The Price Optimization module is a proprietary system that was developed as there had been lot of leverage costs wasted up with the brands. Lean Systems followed by INTERCOTINENTAL HOTEL GROUP After the 9/11 attack there has been a considerable and resulting downturn in the hotel and hospitality business, IHG needed to cut costs significantly to stay competitive. There had been a cut down of around $100M from the Americas Region operating budget. Then IHG turned managed services consultants, to help reduce their spend on Helpdesk, Deskside and Server Support services by 33% (or $1.2M) and understand why end-user satisfaction was low and make improvements in the service with budget planning. The systems were transformed and a formulation of IT servers was lead on to cut down the costs looked at the IT challenges being faced by IHG, it seemed to migrate as many of the Desk side service calls as possible to the Helpdesk. It was to make process improvements without disrupting a live IT service and further degrading already low levels of services. Lean and Six Sigma were applied to the present procedures which allowed quantifying obvious areas for improvement and also uncovering substantial opportunities to make changes with. For example, discovering the cost savings that eliminate redundancy between service providers would bring a change in overall change in system thus saving costs and to achieve the $1.2M in savings. The following lean procedures were allowed: To reduce the average problem fixing times and to improve customer satisfaction Solve more problems at the Helpdesk instead of on-site Deskside Updated and standardized operating systems to reduce complications with the data availablity Moving of account administration off-site so it will be easy for managing and storing information Eliminate the vendor duplication for an effort to further reduce costs Supply Chain for DELL Computers The Dell Computer Corporation a leading direct computer systems company. Dell sells its computer systems directly to end customers, bypassing distributors and retailers (resellers). Dells supply chain consists of only three stages. The suppliers from whom they gain basic resources, the manufacturer (Dell) at which innovation is converted to technology, and end users. Dell has developed direct contact with customers which allows it to: Properly identify market segments, Analyze the requirements and profitability of each segment, and Develop more accurate demand forecasts. Dell matches supply and demand because its customers order computer configurations over the phone or online (Internet) where sometimes it makes use of JIT (Just In Time) process as each computer has to be configured according to needs. These computer configurations are built up from components that are available. Dells strategy is to provide customised, low cost, and quality computers that are delivered on time to make the customer feel cared for and valued for time and money. Dell successfully implemented this strategy through its efficient manufacturing operations, better supply chain management and direct sales model. Dell takes orders directly from its customers; either on phone or online. Thus, Dell reduces the cost of intermediaries and agents that would otherwise add up to the total cost of PC for the customer as well be problematic at times with misunderstanding and breaking down image of DELL. Dell also saves time on processing orders that other companies normally incur in t heir sales and distribution system. Moreover, by directly dealing with the customer Dell gets a clearer indication of market trends. This helps Dell to plan for future besides better managing its supply chain and also keeps a track with trends and surveys the customer needs in specific market. This also helps dell to get a targeted sector for the next innovative product. One more advantage for Dell is it gets by directy dealing with the customer is that it is able to get the customers requirements regarding software to be loaded. Dell loads the ordered software in its plant itself before dispatching it. By eliminating the need of a PC support engineer to load software, the customers gain both in time and cost. They can use the PCs the moment they arrive. Just by a click and no need of any separate installations are to be made with the same thus cutting down the costs of engineers for installation. Constraint Management of DELL Computers The Dell computers being innovative and efficient with the systems have to some internal constraints which can be managed while applying New single-system backup solution which combines world-class hardware and software to help customers store, protect and archive data and also Dell and Symantec collaborate to make reduplication technology accessible so customers can improve efficiency and optimize storage investments and dell could provw with the best. In accordance with innovating on working on customer needs there has to been management on constraints.To help small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) more effectively respond to the challenge of efficiently storing, managing and protecting increasing amounts of business-critical data, Dell is introducing the PowerVault DL2100 Powered by Symantec Backup Exec 2010, a disk-based backup and recovery solution with available reduplication technology in a single server. With this integrated end-to-end solution, customers can easily deploy and manage backup and recovery tasks, and reduce backup costs compared to tape-based solutions. Which will be a innovative solution for managing the data efficiently and in organised way rather then having large servers being operated continuously incurring costs and adding up to the maintenance costs Lean systems for Dell Computers Dell follows to run a lean operation. Dell factory we wont get to see raw materials, except those on the production line so as we use Just In Time procedure follow-ups. There are no products, as we build to order. So it is a pull system, rather than a push system where you build to forecasts and it so often goes wrong. Often there is no much push strategy used in dell computers manufacturing systems avoiding wastes and layoffs. The other characteristic of the Dell business model is the attention to detail, and the belief in continuous improvement and continuous innovation. Dells manufacturing techniques are a margin ahead of its competitors. To keep pressing ahead to keep Dell Computer at the forefront of production methods would be the strategy to be the pioneers of the computer world There have been number of touches and a computer needs you can cut the number of people you need to build it. But the number of touches also directly relates to the number of failures in the field as it generally possesses a risk of changes in technology and the current production lying back. There is a huge cost to DELL for operating technical support and dispatching a replacement part. If on a computer system they have to do a part replacement, they have to lose the profit on that PC if we have to do a dispatch. So getting it right on quality is fundamental to prove the customers being the best in the computer world. Dell has been pulling business model from such that there were the efficiencies of Dell. Now a days Dell has been likely having the idea of outsourcing manufacturing to that of installing an ERP system. Which can cut down the manufacturing costs as the faults on hardware to be replaced back with the manufacturer just instead of producing and facing losses on the failure or breakdown of any hardware Comparative variations in Operating systems of IHG and DELL Computers Comparing a Brand from a hospitality sector such as Intercontinental Hotel Group holding 7 major brands in hospitality and service sector having a pioneering strategy achieving varied variety for the customers with choices from business class to leisure and resorts to a customer concentric computer company of DELL Computers which being customer oriented IT sector INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL GROUP (IHG Plc) IHG group has been the pioneers in the hospitality industry with more then 4400 hotels owned and franchised with 7 major brands providing a variation in meeting the requirements of the customers with varied profile and targeting different sectors. They have a plan of expanding to more of 35 properties in the coming three years. The operations being very franchised and linked up together. The supply chain management of in between the interbrands has been contracted with supply chain management SCM consultants to keep it organised as the franchising has to look over the all brand management state. To get summary of the supply chain and to know the defects and implement changes to the operations. The IHG group now is been targeting customers of varied sectors based on the different profiles offered by the properties to suit the customer profile. The pioneering strategy of the IHG is to continue with getting in customer oriented sector while making a change with the services offered. It also offers a loyalty points for the frequent customers and the loyalty card members which would create an assured clientele for the IHG group. DELL Dell has been consumer concentric and also keeping its inventory at a bare minimum. DELL recognises that the it cannot concentrate on just cost alone as it has been following a strategies to directly being in contact with the consumers. It has to differentiate and it has taken the steps to do just that. As the software services it is set to take off in the coming future along with Symantec to develop backup softwares. DELL has laid the foundation to offer the Softwares it has to build on multiple platforms. DELL intends to make available on both DELL and non-DELL systems offering customers the kind of customised support as it has done with its computer systems of hardwares and being with the support from the Microsoft system softwares. The reason being that there are too many complexities involved in the synchronizing the softwares with the various sectors in the market and would be innovating to be as google as it initially came only with search engine now linked up with varied appl ications. But Dell seems determined and has invested a lot in this new service. This could achieve a market share that was lost to HP. Dell will also have to branch out on the various channels it can operate from. The direct consumer interaction has been working well but may not be enough to sustain a more globalized presence in the developing countries. So it needs to expand the channels globally and also has plans to open more manufacturing factors in India, Brazil, and BRIC countries. To enable better delivery of customer service, Dell will have to coordinate with the channels for continuous and considerate supply.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Woman in the Nineteenth Century, by Margaret Fuller Essay -- Woman in

Woman in the Nineteenth Century, by Margaret Fuller In her essay, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Margaret Fuller discusses the state of marriage in America during the 1800‘s. She is a victim of her own knowledge, and is literally considered ugly because of her wisdom. She feels that if certain stereotypes can be broken down, women can have the respect of men intellectually, physically, and emotionally. She explains why some of the inequalities exist in marriages around her. Fuller feels that once women are accepted as equals, men and women will be able achieve a true love not yet known to the people of the world. Fuller personifies what is wrong with the thoughts of people in nineteenth century society. She is a well-educated, attractive woman and yet, in America she is considered unmarriageable because of the unintended intimidation her knowledge brings forth. She can’t understand why men would not want to find a woman with whom they can carry on an intelligent, meaningful conversation and still be physically attracted to. She knows that once this inferiority complex is gotten past, women will start to excel in all different fields. My interpretation is that Fuller feels if women are educated and skilled then they will be able to take care of themselves until the right man comes along. Their discretion will be tenfold, and they will be able to wait for the proverbial "Mr. Right". Fuller gives three wonderful examples of how equality gets broken down in a marriage. The first is the "household partnership"(42), where the man goes off to work and makes a living to support the family, and the woman stays home barefoot and pregnant, takes care of the children and tends to the house. There is a mutual admiration between the husband and wife because they both keep up their end of the bargain. But there is no love built into this relationship. Couples like this are merely supplementing each other’s existence, he by working to support her, and her by cooking and cleaning for him. When she states "this relation is good, as far as it goes"(42), Fuller implies that women are settling for the sake of settling. In the nineteenth century there was a stigma attached to any woman in her twenties who was not yet married. Fuller questions why two people would settle for each other when there are so many people with different things to offer each other. I thi... ...rriage should be based on? Where is the love that they share for each other? Why can’t women have it both ways? Why can’t they find a man who they love and who will love and respect them back? It is questions such as these that light the fire inside Margaret Fuller. Fuller is not attacking men in this essay; it is directed at women as well. She is simply asking that everyone try to look at things differently. She wants people to understand that if women get more education and skills, men will benefit as well. Fuller’s passion and desire for equality is most clearly evidenced when she states, "What deep communion, what real intercourse is implied by the sharing the joys and cares of parentage, when any degree of equality is admitted between the parties" (42). Fuller’s point is that if all responsibilities are shared, men and women will get to have a deeper love and respect for one another. They will finally be able to find their true soul mates. They will be marrying each other for who they truly are, not because of convenience, looks, or for good conversation and friendship. They will be marrying a person they truly know, love and respect, and who loves and respects them back.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Mechanisms of Originality: Comparing Language Systems to Neural Systems :: Biology Essays Research Papers

Mechanisms of Originality: Comparing Language Systems to Neural Systems "When I was a boy I felt that the role of rhyme in poetry was to compel one to find the unobvious because of the necessity of finding a word which rhymes. This forces novel assocations and almost guarantees deviations from routine chains or trains of thought. It becomes paradoxically a sort of automatic mechanism of orginality ..." ---- Stan Ulam, Adventures of a Mathematician In a previous paper, I began exploring a comparison between language and DNA based on their function as information systems. In this paper, I would like to consider some of these issues further, as well as extend the comparison to the nervous system. The conversation was structured around the five "essential characteristics" of DNA; these are stability; variation; reproducibility; the ability to store information; and the ability for that information to be read. For this paper, I'd like to focus just on the criteria of stability by looking at what some researchers are saying now about the structure of language and the structure of the nervous system. One complication which is intrinsic to any kind of discussion like this is that the parallel lines one tries to pursue are only parallel in places; eventually they do overlap, and often they are indistinguishably tangled. The most obvious and forbidding example is that language is itself a product of neural function; thus, when one gets to the root of how sentences are understood and generated, the comparison to neural activity becomes moot, because in fact it IS neural activity (highly specialized and probably not easily generalized neural activity at that). Similarly, any discussion about the origins of language is also by definition a discussion of the evolution of the brain. I mention this only because I think that while the risk of chasing ones own tail is very real, the observations which arise from a consideration of the places where the two structures parallel one another (in an extremely basic way) are sufficiently interesting to warrant the attention. The simplest way to think about structure is in terms of building blocks or discrete units. With language, the most basic units are either letters or phonemes (9); the next level of organization is words; following words are series of words (which in Western languages are usually sentences). Interestingly, meaning is not acquired until letters have made the leap to words.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Verona Essay -- Geography Italy Essays

Verona In Northern Italy, along the Adige River and at the foot of the Lessini Mountains, lies the ancient city of Verona. It is a city filled with ecclesiastical monuments, as well as numerous ancient and historical sites, many dating to the period of the Roman Empire.[i] According to one source, people have inhabited Verona for the past 300,000 years, and archeologists have found numerous stone artifacts of an earlier time.[ii] An ancient tribe founded the city, probably the Euganei or Raeti tribe, but the city was later occupied by the Gallic Cenomani. In 89 B.C., Verona became a Roman colony. Due to its geographical location, Verona flourished as it emerged as an industrial, political, and commercial center. The port in Verona provided access for trade to Northern Europe, and as a result, it became a developed urban city.[iii] The Roman Arena amphitheater is probably the most significant site in Verona. Dating back to the 1st century B.C., it is now a vital theater for the opera. At the time, the Arena was built outside of the city walls. More than 30,000 spectators would travel to Verona to watch the ludii, or shows and games, in the Arena. The most popular of the ludii were the gladiator fights, often times against lions. Originally, the faà »ze was white and pink limestone from Valpolicella. During the Middles Ages, the theater lost its functionality, and people began to use it as a quarry for other buildings. It was not until the Renaissance that people began to intervene in order to return the Arena to its original purpose. There are other Roman monuments of the 1st century B.C. in Verona, such as the Roman Theater and the Arco dei Gavi, or the Gavi Arch. The Roman Theater, originally built during the Augustan age,...> ?Excursions.? Lago di garda magazine. (12 December 2003). ?History: della Scala Epoch.? Castelvecchio Museum, city museum. 24 November 2003. ?History of Verona.? The World Factbook. 25 November 2003.? Kren, Emil and Daniel Marx. ?Verona. Web Gallery of Art. 25 November 2003. ?Michele Sanmicheli, Architecture, Biographies.? Columbia Electronic Press, 2003.? Tierney, John. ?Verona is for Lovers.? Forbes. 13 March 1995: 6. ?Verona, Italy.? Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 17 November 2003.? ?

Monday, September 16, 2019

Greek Art(Sculpture, Vessels)

Greek Art No matter how accomplished they might be, the works of art we have discussed so far seem alien to us. The ancient cultures that produced them were so different from our own that we find few references in those works to our time. Greek architecture, sculpture, and painting, however, are immediately recognizable as the ancestors of Western civilization, despite their debts to earlier art. A Greek temple reminds us of countless government buildings, banks, and college campuses; a Greek statue recalls countless statues of our own day; and a Greek coin is a little different from those we use today.This is neither coincidental nor inevitable. Western civilization has carefully constructed itself in the image of the Greek or the Roman worlds. For an art historian trying to understand the visual culture of those worlds, this presents a special challenge: It is tempting to believe that something familiar on the surface holds the same significance for us as it did for the Greeks or t he Romans, but scholars have discovered time and time again that this is a dangerous fallacy.Another complication in studying Greek art arises because there are three separate, and sometimes conflicting, sources of information on the subject. First, there are the works themselves—reliable, but only a small fraction of what once existed. Second, there are Roman copies of Greek originals, especially sculptures. These works tell us something about important pieces that would otherwise be lost to us, but copies pose their own problems. Without the original, we cannot determine how faithful the copy is, and sometimes multiple copies present several versions of a single original.To make things even more complicated, a Roman copyist’s notion of a copy was quite different from ours. A Roman copy was not necessarily intended as a strict imitation, but allowed for interpreting or adapting the work according to the taste or skill of the copyist or the wishes of the patron. Moreov er, the quality of some Greek sculpture owed much to surface finish, which, in a copy, is entirely up to the copyist. If the original was bronze and the copy marble, the finish would differ dramatically.In some rare cases, apparent copies are of such high quality that we cannot be sure that they really are copies. The third source of information about Greek works is literature. The Greeks were the first Western people to write at length about their own artists. Roman writers incorporated Greek accounts into their own: many of these have survived, although often in fragmentary condition. These written sources offer a glimpse of what the Greeks themselves considered their most important achievements in architecture, sculpture, and painting.This written testimony has helped us to identify celebrated artists and monuments, though much of it deals with works that have not survived. In other cases, surviving Greek works that strike us as among the greatest masterpieces of their time are n ot mentioned at all in literature. Reconciling the literature with the copies and the original works, and weaving these strands into a coherent picture of the development of Greek art, has been the difficult task of archeologists and ancient art historians for several centuries.The Greek Gods and Goddesses All early civilizations and preliterate cultures had creation myths to explain the origin of the universe and humanity’s place in it. Over time, these myths evolved into complex cycles that represent a comprehensive attempt to understand the world. The Greek gods and goddesses, though immortal, behaved in very human ways. They quarreled, and had children with each other‘s spouses and often with mortals as well. They were sometimes threatened and even overthrown by their own children.The principal Greek gods and goddesses, with their Roman counterparts in parentheses, are given below. ZEUS (Jupiter): son of Kronos and Rhea; god of sky and weather, and king of the Olymp ian deities. After killing Kronos, Zeus married his sister HERA (Juno) and divided the universe by lot with his brothers: POSEIDON (Neptune) as allotted the sea and HADES (Pluto) was allotted the Underworld, which he ruled with his queen PERSEPHONE (Proserpina). Zeus and Hera had several children: ARES (Mars), the god of war HEBE, the goddess of youthHEPHAISTOS (Vulcan), the lame god of metalwork and the forge Zeus lost had numerous children through his love affairs with other goddesses and with mortal women, including: ATHENA (Minerva), goddess of crafts, including war, and thus of intelligence and wisdom. A protector of heroes, she became the patron goddess of Athens, an honor she won in a contest with Poseidon. Her gift to the city was an olive tree, which she caused to sprout on the Akropolis. APHRODITE (Venus), the goddess of love, beauty, and female fertility. She married Hephaistos, but had many affairs.Her children were HARMONIA, EROS, and ANTEROS (with Ares); HERMAPHRODITOS (with Hermes); PRIAPOS (with Dionysos); and AENEAS (with the Trojan prince Anchises). APOLLO ( Apollo), with his twin sister ARTEMIS, god of the stringed lyre and bow, who therefore both presided over the civilized pursuits of music and poetry, and shot down transgressors; a paragon of male beauty, he was also the god of prophecy and medicine. ARTEMIS (Diana), with her twin brother, APOLLO, virgin goddesses of the hunt and the protector of young girls.She was also sometimes considered a moon goddess with SELENE. DIONYSOS (Bacchus), the god of altered states particularly that induced the wine. Opposite in temperament to Apollo, Dionysos was raised on Mount Nysa, where he invented winemaking; he married the princess Ariadne after the hero Theseus abandoned her on Naxos. His followers, the goatish satyrs and their female companions, the nymphs and humans who were known as maenads (bacchantes), were given to orgiastic excess. Yet, there was another, more temperate side to Dionysos†™ character.As the god of fertility, he was also a god of vegetation, as well as of peace, hospitality, and the theater. HERMES (Mercury), the messenger of the gods, conductor of souls to Hades, and the god of travelers and commerce. The great flowering of ancient Greek art was just one manifestation of a wide-ranging exploration of humanistic and religious issues. Artists, writers, and philosophers struggled with common question, still preserved in a huge body of works. Their inquiries cut to the very core of human existence, and have formed the backbone of much of Western philosophy.For the most part, they accepted a pantheon of gods, whom they worshiped in human form. (See Informing Art, above) Yet they debated the nature of those gods, and the relationship between divinities and humankind. Did fate control human actions, or was there free will? And if so, what was the nature of virtue? Greek thinkers conceived of many aspects of life in dualistic terms. Order (cosmos, in Greek ) was eternally opposed to disorder (chaos), and both poles permeated existence. Civilization, which was, by definition, Greek, stood in pposition to an uncivilized world beyond Greek borders; all non-Greeks were â€Å"barbarians†, named for the nonsensical sound of their languages to Greek ears (â€Å"bar-bar-bar-bar†). Reason, too, had its opposite: the irrational, mirrored in light and darkness, in man and woman. In their literature and in their art, the ancient Greeks addressed the tension between these polar opposites. THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK ART: THE GEOMETRIC STYLE The first Greek-speaking groups came to Greece about 2000 BCE. These newcomers brought with them a new culture that soon evolved to encompass most of mainland Greece, as well as the Aegean Islands and Crete.By the first millennium BCE the Greeks had colonized the west coast of Asia Minor and Cyprus. In this period we distinguish three main subgroups: the Dorinians, centered in Peloponnese; the Ionians, inhabiting Attica, Euboea, the Cyclades, and the central coast of Asia Minor; and the Aeolians, who ended up in the northeast Aegean (see map 5. 1). Despite their cultural differences and their geographical dispersal, the Greeks had a strong sense of kinship, based on language and common beliefs.From the mid-eighth through the mid-sixth centuries BCE, there was a wave of colonization as the Greeks expanded across the Mediterranean and as far as the Black Sea. At this time, they founded important settlements in Sicily and southern Italy, collectively known as Magna Graecia, and in North Africa. After the collapse of Mycenaean civilization, art became largely nonfigural for several centuries. In the eighth century BCE, the oldest Greek style that we know in the arts developed, known today as the Geometric.Images appeared at about the time the alphabet was introduced (under strong Near Eastern influence). It was contemporaneous, too, with the work of the poet Homer (or a group of poet s), who wrote the lasting epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey, tales of the Trojan War and the return of one of its heroes, Odysseus, home to Ithaka. We also have works in painted pottery and small-scale sculpture in clay and bronze. The two forms are closely related: Pottery was often adorned with the kinds of figures found in sculpture. Geometric Style PotteryAs quickly as pottery became an art form, Greek potters began to develop an extensive, but fairly standardized, repertoire of vessel shape (fig. 5. 1). Each type was well adapted to its function, which was reflected in its form. As a result, each shape presented unique challenges to the painter, and some became specialists at decorating certain types of vases. Larger pots often attracted the most ambitious craftsmen because they provided a more generous field on which to work. Making and decorating vases were complex processes, usually performed by different artisans.At first painters decorated their wares with abstract desi gns, such as triangles, â€Å"checkerboard†, and concentric circles. Toward 800 BCE human and animal figures began to appear within the geometric framework, and in the most elaborate examples these figures interacted in narrative scenes. The vase shown here, from a cemetery near the later Dipylon gate in the northwestern corner of Athens, dates to around 750 BCE (fig. 5. 2). Known as the Dipylon Vase, it was one of a group of unusually large vessels used as grave monuments. Holen in its base allowed liquid offerings (libations) to filter down to the dead below.In earlier centuries, Athenians had placed the ashes of their cremated dead inside vases, choosing the vase's shape according to the sex of the deceased. A woman's remains were buried in a belly-handled amphora, a type of vase more commonly used for storing wine or oil; a man's ashes were placed in a neck-amphora. A krater, a large bowl-like vessel in which Greeks normally mixed wine with water, had also been used as a burial marker since the early first millennium(see fig. 5. 1). The shape of the example illustrated here shows that the deceased was a woman; its sheer monumentality indicates that she was a woman of considerable means.The amphora is a masterpiece of the potter's craft. At over 5 feet tall, it was too large to be thrown in one piece. Instead, the potter built it up in sections, joined with a clay slip. A careful proportional scheme governed the vessels' form: Its width measures half of its height and the neck measures half the height of the body. The artist placed the handles so as to emphasize the widest point of the body. Most of the vase's decoration is given over to geometric patterns dominated by a meander pattern, also known as a maze or Greek key pattern (fig 5. ), a band of rectangular scrolls, punctuated with bands of lustrous black paint at the neck, the shoulder, and the base. The geometric design reflects the proportional system of the vase's shape. Single meander patter ns run in bands toward the top and bottom of the neck; the triple meander encircling the neck at the center emphasizes its length. The double and single meanders on the amphora's body appear stocky by contrast, complementing the body's rounder form. Above the triple meander on the neck, deer graze, one after the other, in an identical pattern circling the vase.This animal frieze prefigures the widespread use of the motif in the seventh century BCE. At the base of the neck, they recline, with their heads turned back over their bodies, like an animate version of the meander pattern itself, which moves ever forward while turning back upon itself. In the center of the amphora, framed between its handles, is a narrative scene. The deceased lies on a bier, beneath a checkered shroud. Flanking her are standing figures with their arms raised above their heads in a gesture of lamentation; an additional four figures kneel on sit beneath the bier.Rather than striving for naturalism, the painte r used solid black geometric forms to construct human bodies. A triangle represents the torso, and the raised arms extend the triangle beyond the shoulders. The scene itself represents the prothesis, part of the Athenian funerary ritual when the dead person lay in state and public mourning took place. A lavish funeral was an occasion to display wealth and status, and crowds of mourners were so desirable that families would hire professional mourners for the event.Thus the depiction of a funeral on the burial marker is not simply journalistic reportage but a visual record of the deceased person's high standing in society. Archeologists have found Geometric pottery in Italy and the Near East as well as in Greece. This wide distribution is a sign of the important role not only the Greeks but also the Phoenicians, North Syrians, and other Near Eastern peoples as agents of diffusion all around the Mediterranean. What is more, from the second half of the eighth century onwards, inscriptio ns on hese vases show that the Greeks had already adapted the Phoenician alphabet to their own use. Geometric Style Sculpture A small, bronze sculptural group representing a man and a centaur dates to about the same time as the funerary amphora, and there are distinct similarities in the way living forms are depicted in both works of art(fig. 5. 4). Thin arms and flat, triangular chests contrast with more rounded buttocks and legs. The heads are spherical forms, with beards and noses added. The artist cast the group in one piece, uniting them with a common base and their entwined pose.The group was probably found in the sanctuary at Olympia. Judging by its figurative quality, and by the costliness of the material and technique, it was probably a sumptuous votive offering. The figures obviously interact, revealing the artist's interest in narrative, a theme that persists throughout the history of Greek art. Whether the artist was referring to a story known to his audience is hard to say. The figures' helmets tell us that their encounter is martial, and the larger scale of the man may suggest that he will be the victor in the struggle.Many scholars believe he represents Herakles, son of Zeus and a Greek hero, who fought centaurs many times in the course of his mythical travails. THE ORIENTALIZING STYLE: HORIZONS EXPAND Between about 725 and 650 BCE, a new style of pottery and sculpture emerged in Greece that reflects strong influences initially from the Near East and later from Egypt. Scholars know this as the Orientalizing period, when Greek art and culture rapidly absorbed a host of Eastern motifs and ideas, including hybrid creatures such as griffins and sphinxes.This absorption of Eastern ideas led to a vital period of experimentation, as painters and sculptors mastered new forms. Map 5. 1 The Ancient Greek World 5. 1 Some common Greek vessel forms 5. 2 Late Geometric belly-handled amphora by the Dipylon Master, from the Dipylon Cemetery, Athens. ca 750 BCE. Height 5'1† (1. 55 m) National Archaeological Museum, Athens 5. 3 Common Greek ornamental motifs 5. 4 Man and Centaur, perharps from Olympia. ca 750 BCE. Bronze. Height 4 3/8 † (11. 1 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917. 17. 190. 072 Miniature Vessels The Orientalizing style replaced the Geometric in many Greek city-states, including Athens. One of the foremost centers of its production, though, was Corinth, at the northeastern gateway to the Peloponnese. This city became a leader in colonizing ventures in the west and came to dominate the trade in exports. Corinthian workshops had a long history of pottery production. Vase painters learned to make a refined black gloss slip, which they used to create silhouette or outline images. They could also incise the slip to add detail and vivacity to their work.They particularly specialized in crafting miniature vessels like the vase shown here, which is at Proto-Corinthian aryballos o r perfume jar, dating to about 680 BCE (fig. 5. 5). Archeologists have discovered vessels like this one throughout the Greek world, left in sanctuaries as dedications to the gods, or buried as grave goods. Despite its small size, intricate decoration covers the vase's surface. Around the shoulder stalks a frieze of animals, reminiscent of Near Eastern animal motifs and of the early example seen on the Dipylon Vase (see figs. 2. 25 and 5. 2).Bands are real and imaginary animals are a hallmark of Corinthian and other Orientalizing wares, covering later vases from top to bottom. A guilloche pattern ornaments the handle, and meander patterns cover the edge of the mouth and the handle (see fig. 5. 3). The principal figural frieze offers another early example of pictorial narrative, but the daily life scenes of Geometric pottery have yielded to the fantastic world of myth. On one side, a stocky nude male wielding a sword runs toward a vase on a stand. On the side shown here, bearded male struggles to wrest a scepter or staff from the grasp of a centaur.According to one theory, the frieze represents a moment in Herakles' conflict with a band of centaurs on Mount Pholoe. In Greek mythology, centaurs were notoriously susceptible to alcohol, and the mixing bowl for wine represented on the other side may indicate the reason for their rowdiness. Others interpret the â€Å"Herakles† figure as Zeus, brandishing his thunderbolt or lightning. No matter how one reads this scene, there is no doubt that it was meant to evoke a mythological reality. BRONZE TRIPODS During the Geometric period, Greeks would sometimes set up bronze tripod cauldrons in sanctuaries as dedications to the gods (fig. . 6). The gesture was an act of piety, but it was also a way of displaying wealth, and some of the tripod cauldrons reached monumental proportions. From the early seventh century BCE, a new type of monumental vessel was introduced— the Orientalizing cauldron. Around the edge of the bowl, bronze-workers might catch protomes, images of sirens (winged female creatures), and griffins— both were fantasy creatures that were known in the Near East. The cast protome shown here, from the island of Rhodes, is a magnificently ominous creature, standing watch over the dedication (fig. 5. 7).The boldly upright ears and the vertical knob on top of the head contrast starkly with the strong curves of the neck, head, eyes, and mouth, while its menacing tongue is silhouetted in countercurve against the beak. The straight lines appear to animate the curves, so that the dangerous hybrid seems about to spring. ARCHAIC ART: ART OF THE CITY-STATE During the course of the seventh and sixth centuries BCE, the Greeks appear to have refined their notion of a polis, or city-state. Once merely a citadel, the place of refuge in times of trouble, the city came to represent a community and an identity.City-states, as they are known, were governed in several different ways, includ ing monarchy (from monarches, â€Å"sole ruler†), aristocracy (from aristoi and kratia, â€Å"rule of the best†), tyranny (from tyrannos, â€Å"despot†), oligarchy (from oligoi, â€Å"the few,† a small ruling elite), and, in Athens, democracy (from demos, â€Å"the people†). The road to democracy moved slowly, starting with Solon's reforms at the end of the sixth century in Athens. Even by the time of Perikles' radical democratic reforms of 462 BCE, women played no direct role in civic life, and slavery was the accepted practice in Athens, as it was everywhere in the Greek world.With the changing ideal of the city-state came a change in its physical appearance. The Rise of Monumental Temple Architecture At some point in the seventh century BCE, Greek architects began to design temples using stone rather than wood. The earliest were probably built at Corinth, in a style known as Doric, named for the region where it originated. From there the idea sp read across the isthmus that connects the Peloponnesos to the mainland and up the coast to Delphi and the island of Corfu, then rapidly throughout the Hellenic world.The Ionic style soon developed on the Aegean Islands and the coast of Asia Minor. The Corinthian style did not develop until the fourth century BCE (see page 142). Greeks recognized the importance of this architectural revolution at the time: Architects began to write treatises on architecture— the first we know of— and the personal fame they achieved through their work has lasted to this day. Writing in Roman times, the architect Vitruvius described the Doric and Ionic styles, and his discussions of them have been central to our understanding of Greek architecture.However, our readings of his text have been mediated through early modern commentators and illustrators, who wrote of Doric and Ionic â€Å"orders† rather than â€Å"types†, which is a better translation of Vitruvius' â€Å"genera †. The distinction is important: â€Å"Order† suggest an immutable quality, a rigid building code, when in fact we find a subtle but rich variation in surviving Greek architecture. The essential, functioning components of Doric and Ionic temples are very similar, though they may vary according to the size of the building or regional preferences (fig. 5. ). The nucleus of the building—in fact, its reason for existing— is its main chamber, its cella or naos. This chamber housed an image of the god to whom the temple was dedicated. Often, interior columns lined the cella walls and helped to support the roof, as well as visually framing the cult statue. Approaching the cella is a porch or pronaos, and in some cases a second porch was added behind the cella, making the design more symmetrical and providing space for religious paraphernalia. In large temples, a colonnade or peristyle surrounds the central unit of ella and porches, and the building is known as a peripteral temple. The peristyle commonly consists of six to eight columns at front and back, and usually 12 to 17 along the sides, counting the corner columns twice; the very largest temples of Ionian Greece had a double colonnade. The peristyle added more than grandeur: It offered worshipers shelter from the elements. Being neither entirely exterior nor entirely interior space, it also functioned as a transitional zone, between the profane world outside and the sanctity of the cella.Some temples were set in sacred groves, where the columns, with their strong vertical form, integrated the temple with its environment. Echoed again inside the cella, the columns also integrated the exterior and interior of the building. Most Greek temples are oriented so that the entrance faces east, toward the rising sun. East of the temple is usually the altar, the truly indispensable installation for the performance of ritual. It was on the altar that Greeks performed sacrifices, standing before th e cult statue and the worshipping community of the Greek polis.Differences between the Doric and Ionic styles are apparent in a head-on view, or elevation. Many of the terms Greeks used to describe the parts of their buildings, shown in figure 5. 9, are still in common usage today. The building proper rests on an elevated platform, normally approached by three steps, known as the stereobate and stylobate. A Doric column consists of the shaft, usually marked by shallow vertical grooves, known as flutes, and the capital. The capital is made up of the flaring, cushionlike echinus and a square tablet called the abacus.The entablature, which includes all the horizontal elements that rest on the columns, is subdivided into the architrave(a row of stone blocks directly supported by the columns); the frieze, made up of alternating triple-grooved triglyphs and smooth or sculpted metopes; and a projecting horizontal cornice, or geison, which may include a gutter (sima). The architrave in turn supports the triangular pediment and the roof elements (the raking geison and raking sima). Ionic temples tend to rest on an additional leveling course, or euthynteria, as well as three steps.An Ionic column differs from a Doric column in having an ornate base of its own, perhaps used at first to protect the bottom from rain. Its shaft is more slender, with less tapering, ART IN TIME ca. 8th century BCE—Homer writes The Iliad and The Odyssey 776 BCE—First Olympic Games ca. 753 BCE—Rome founded ca. 750 BCE—Dipylon Vase 5. 5 The Ajax Painter. Aryballos (perfume jar). Middle Protocorinthian IA, 690-675 BCE. Ceramic. Height 2 7/8† (7. 3 cm). diameter 1 3/4† (4. 4 cm). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Catharine Page Perkins Fund. Photograph  © 2006, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 95. 12 5. 6 Geometric tripod cauldron from Olympia. th century. Height 2'1 1/2† (65 cm). Olympia Museum 5. 7 Griffin-head protome from a bronze tripod-cauldron, from Ka meiros, Rhodes. ca. 650 BCE. Cast bronze. The British Museum, London 5. 8 Ground plan of a typical Greek peripteral temple (after Grinnell) and the capital has a double scroll or volute below the abacus, which projects strongly beyond the width of the shaft. The Ionic column lacks the muscular quality of its mainland cousin. Instead, it evokes a growing plant, something like a formalized palm tree, and this it shares with its Egyptian predecessors, though it may not have come directly from Egypt.Above the architrave, the frieze is continuous, rather than broken up visually into triglyphs and metopes. Whether Doric or Ionic, the temple structure was built of stone blocks fitted together without mortar, requiring that they be precisely shaped to achieve smooth joints. Where necessary, metal dowels or clamps fastened the blocks together. With rare exceptions, columns were made up of sections, called drums. The shaft was fluted after the entire column was assembled and in position. The roof was made of terra-cotta tiles over wooden rafters, and wooden beams were used for the ceiling.Fire was a constant threat. Just how either style came to emerge in Greece, and why they came together into succint systems so quickly, are still puzzling questions. Remains of the oldest surviving temples show that the main features of the Doric style were already well established soon after 600 BCE. Early Greek builders in stone seem to have drawn upon three sources of inspiration: Mycenaean and Egyptian stone architecture, and pre-Archaic Greek architecture in wood and mud brick. It is possible that the temple's central unit, the cella and porch, derived from the plan of the Mycenaean megaron(see fig. . 19), either through continuous tradition or by way of revival. If true, this relationship may reflect the revered place of Mycenaean culture in later Greek mythology. The shaft of the Doric column tapers upward, not downward like the Minoan-Mycenaean column. This recalls fluted half- columns in the funerary precinct of Djoser at Saqqara (see fig. 3. 6), of over 2,000 years earlier. Moreover, the very notion that temple should be built of stone and have large numbers of columns was an Egyptian one, even if Egyptian temples were designed for greater internal traffic.Scholars assume that the Greeks learned many of their stone-cutting and masonry techniques from the Egyptians, as well as some knowledge of architectural ornamentation and geometry. In a sense, a Greek temple with its peristyle of columns might be viewed as the columned court of an Egyptian sanctuary turned inside out. Some scholars see the development of Doric architecture as a petrification (or turning to stone) of existing wooden forms, so that stone form follows wooden function. According to this view, at one triglyphs masked the ends of wooden beams, and the droplike shapes below, called guttae (see fig. . 9), are the descendants of wooden pegs that held them in place. Metopes evolved out of board s that filled gaps between the triglyphs to guard against weather. Mutules(flat projecting blocks), for their part, reflect the rafter ends in wooden roofs. Some derivations are more convincing than others, however. The vertical subdivisions of triglyphs hardly seem to reflect the forms of three half-round logs, as scholars suggest, and column flutings need not be developed from tool marks on a tree trunk, since Egyptian builders also fluted their columns and yet rarely used timber for supporting members.The question of how far stylistic features can be explained in terms of function faces the architectural historian again and again. DORIC TEMPLES AT PAESTUM The early evolution of Doric temples is evident in two unusually well-preserved examples located in the southern Italian polis of Paestum, where a Greek colony flourished during the Archaic period. Both temples are dedicated to the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus; the Temple of Hera II, however, was built almost a century after the T emple of Hera I, the so-called Basilica (fig. 5. 10). The differences in their proportions are striking. The Temple of Hera I( on the left, fig. 5. 0) appears low and sprawling—and not just because so much of the entablature is missing—whereas the Temple of Hera II looks tall and compact. This is partly because the temple of Hera I is enneastyle (with nine columns across the front and rear), while the later temple is only hexastyle (six columns). Yet it is also the result of changes to the outline of the columns. On neither temple are the column shafts straight from bottom to top. About a third of the way up, they bulge outward slightly, receding again at about two thirds of their height. This swelling effect, known as entasis, is much stronger on the earlier Temple of Hera I.It gives the impression that the columns bulge with the strain of supporting the superstructure and that the slender tops, although aided by the widely flaring, cushionlike capitals, can barely wi thstand the crushing weight. The device adds an extraordinary vitality to the building— a sense of compressed energy waiting to be released. The Temple of Hera II is among the best preserved of all Doric temples (fig. 5. 11), and shows how the ceiling was supported in a large Doric temple. Inside the cella, the two rows of columns each support a smaller set of columns in a way that makes the tapering seem continuous despite the architrave in between.Such a two-story interior is first found at the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina around the beginning of the fifth century BCE. That temple is shown here in a reconstruction drawing (fig. 5. 12), which illustrates the structural system in detail. EARLY IONIC TEMPLES The Ionic style first appeared about a half-century after the Doric. With its vegetal decoration, it seems to have been strongly inspired by Near Eastern forms. The closest known parallel to the Ionic capital is the Aeolic capital, found in the region of Old Smyrna, in easte rn Greece, and in the northeast Aegean, itself apparently derived from North Syrian and Phoenician designs.The earliest Ionic temples were constructed in Ionian Greece, where leading cities erected vast, ornate temples in open rivalry with one another. Little survives of these early buildings. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesos gained tremendous fame in antiquity, and numbered among the seven wonders of the ancient world. The Ephesians hired Theodoros to work on its foundations in about 560 BCE, shortly after he and another architect, Rhoikos, had designed a vast temple to Hera on the island of Samos. The architects, Chersiphron of Knossos and Metagenes, his son, wrote a treatise on their building.Like the temple on Samos, the temple at Ephesos was dipteral, with two rows of columns surrounding it (fig. 5. 13). Along with the vegetal capitals, this feature emphasized the forestlike quality of the building. The Temple of Artemis was larger than Hera's temple, and it was the first monum ental building to be constructed mostly of marble. These Ionic colossi had clear symbolic value: They represented their respective city's bid for regional leadership. Stone Sculpture According to literary sources, Greeks carved very simple wooden sculptures of their gods in the eighth century BCE, but since wood deteriorates, none of them survive.Yet, in about 650 BCE, sculptors, like architects, made the transition to working in stone, and so began one of the great traditions of Greek art. The new motifs that distinguished the Orientalizing style from the Geometric had reached Greece mainly through the importation of ivory carvings and metalwork from the Near East, reflecting Egyptian influences as well. But these transportable objects do not help to explain the rise of monumental stone architecture and sculpture, which must have been based on careful, on-the-spot study of Egyptian works and the techniques used to produce them.The opportunity for just such a close study was availab le to Greek merchants living in trading camps in the western Nile delta, by permission of the Egyptian king Psammetichus I (r. 664-610 BCE). KORE AND KOUROS Early Greek statues clearly show affinities with the techniques and proportional systems used by Egyptian sculptors. Two are illustrated here, one a small female figure of about 630 BCE, probably from Crete (fig. 5. 14), the other a life-size nude male youth of about 600 BCE (fig. 5. 15), known as the New York Kouros because it is displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.Like their Egyptian forerunners (see figs. 3. 11 and 3. 12), the statues are rigidly frontal, and conceived as four distinct sides, reflecting the form of the block from which they were carved, The female statue stands with feet placed firmly together, her left arm by her side, and her right arm held up to her breast. Like Menkaure, the Greek male youth is slim and broad-shouldered; he stands with his left leg forward, and his arms by his sides, terminating i n clenched fists. His shoulders, hips, and knees are all level.Both figures have stylized, wiglike hair like their Egyptian counterparts, but there are significant differences. First, the Greek sculptures are truly free-standing, separated from the back slab that supports Egyptian stone figures. In fact, they are the earliest large stone images of the human figure in the history of art that can stand on their own. More than that, Greek sculptures incorporated ART IN TIME ca. 680 BCE—Corinthian aryballos mid-7th century BCE—Black-figured vase-painting technique develops ca. 650 BCE—Greeks establish trading posts in Egypt ca. 20 BCE—Draco codifies Athenian laws 5. 9 Doric and Ionic styles in elevation 5. 10 The Temple of Hera I (â€Å"Basilica†), ca. 550 BCE, and the Temple of Hera II (â€Å"Temple of Poseidon†), ca. 500 BCE. Paestum 5. 11 Interior, Temple of Hera II, ca. 500 BCE 5. 12 Sectional view (restored) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina 5. 13 Restored plan of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos, Turkey. ca. 560 BCE empty space (between the legs, for instance, or between arms and torso), whereas Egyptian figures remained immersed in stone, with the empty spaces between forms partly filled.Early Greek sculptures are also more stylized than their Egyptian forebears. This is most evident in the large staring eyes, emphasized by bold arching eyebrows, and in the linear treatment of the anatomy: The male youth's pectoral muscles and rib cage appear almost to have been etched onto the surface of the stone, rather than modeled like Menkaure's. Like most early Greek female sculptures, this one is draped. She wears a close-fitting garment which reveals her breasts but conceals her hips and legs; in fact, the skirt has more in common with Egyptian block statues than with Queen Khamerernebty (see fig. 3. 2). While the Greek female statue and Menkaure are clothed, the male youth is nude. These conventions reflect the fact that pub lic nudity in ancient Greece was acceptable for males, but not for females. Dozen of Archaic sculptures of this kind survive throughout the Greek world. Some were discovered in sanctuaries and cemeteries, but most were found in reused contexts, which complicates any attempt to understand their function. Scholars describe them by the Greek terms for maiden (kore, plural korai) and youth (kouros, plural kouroi). These terms gloss over the difficulty of identifying them more precisely.Some are inscribed, with the names of artists (â€Å"†So-and-so' made me†) or with dedications to various deities, chiefly Apollo. These, then, were votive offerings. But in most cases we do not know whether they represent the donor, a deity, or a person deemed divinely favored, such as a victor in athletic games. Those placed on graves may have represented the person buried beneath; yet in rare cases a kouros stands over a female burial site. No clear effort was made to individualize the sta tues as portraits, so they can represent the dead only in a general sense.It might make most sense to think of the figures as ideals of physical perfection and vitality shared by mortals and immortals alike, given meaning by their physical context. What is clear is that only the wealthy could afford to erect them, since many were well over life size and carved from high quality marble. Indeed, the very stylistic cohesion of the sculptures may reveal their social function: By erecting a sculpture of this kind, a wealthy patron declared his or her status and claimed membership in ruling elite circles. DATING AND NATURALISM The Archaic period stretches from the mid-seventh century to about 480 BCE.Within this time frame, there are few secure dates for free-standing sculptures. Scholars have therefore established a dating system based upon the level of naturalism in a given sculpture. According to this system, the more stylized the figure, the earlier it must be. Comparing figures 5. 15 and 5. 16 illustrates how this model works. An inscription on the base of the latter identifies it as a funerary statue of Kroisos, who had died a hero's death in battle. Like all such figures, it was painted, and traces of color can still be seen in the hair and the pupils of the eyes.Instead of the sharp planes and linear treatment of the New York Kouros (fig. 5. 15), the sculptor of the kouros from Anavysos modeled its anatomy with swelling curves: looking at it, a viewer can imagine flesh and sinew and bones in the carved stone. A greater plasticity gives the impression that the body could actually function. The proportions of the facial features are more naturalistic as well. In general, the face has a less masklike quality than the New York Kouros, though the lips are still drawn up in an artificial smile, known as the Archaic smile, that is not reflected in the eyes.Based on these differences, scholars judge the Anavysos Kouros more â€Å"advanced† than the New York K ouros, and date it some 75 years later. Given the later trajectory of Greek sculpture, there is every reason to believe that this way of dating Archaic sculpture is more or less accurate (accounting for regional differences and the like). All the same, it is worth emphasizing that it is based on an assumption—that sculptors, or their patrons, were striving toward naturalism—rather than on factual data. The kore type appears to follow, a similar pattern of development to the kouros.With her blocklike form and strongly accented waist, for instance, the kore of figure 5. 17 seems a direct descendant of the kore in figure 5. 14. On account of her heavy woolen garment (or peplos), she is known as the Peplos Kore. The left hand, which once extended forward to offer a votive gift, must have given the statue a spatial quality quite different from that of the earlier kore figure. Equally new is the more organic treatment of the hair, which falls over the shoulders in soft, curl y strands, in contrast to the stiff wig in figure 5. 14.The face is fuller, rounder, and the smile gentler and more natural than any we have seen so far, moving from the mouth into the cheeks. Scholars therefore place this statue a full century later than the work shown in figure 5. 14. All the same, there is more variation in types of kore than in types of kouros. This is partly because a kore is a clothed figure and therefore presents the problem of how to relate body and drapery. It is also likely to reflect changing habits or local styles of dress. The kore of figure 5. 18, from about a decade later than the Peplos Kore, has none of the latter's severity.Both were found on the Akropolis of Athens, but she probably came from Chios, and island of Ionian Greece. Unlike the korai discussed so far, this kore wears the light Ionian chiton under the heavier diagonally-shaped kimation, which replaced the peplos in fashion. The layers of the garment still loop around the body in soft cur ves, but the play of richly differentiated folds, pleats, and textures has almost become an end in itself. Color played an important role in such works, and it is fortunate that so much of it survives in this example. Architectural Sculpture: The Building Comes AliveSoon after the Greeks began to build temples in stone, they also started to decorate them with architectural sculpture. Indeed, early Greek architects such as Theodoros of Samos were often sculptors as well, and sculpture played an important role in helping to articulate architecture and to bring it to life. Traces of pigment show that these sculptures were normally vividly painted—an image that is startlingly at odds with our conception of ancient sculpture as pristine white marble. The Egyptians had been covering walls and columns with reliefs since the Old Kingdom.Their carvings were so shallow (for example, see fig. 3. 29) that they did not break the continuity of the surface and had no weight or volume of the ir own. Thus they were related to their architectural setting in the same sense as wall paintings. This is also true of the reliefs on Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian buildings (for example, see figs. 2. 21 and 2. 22). the Near East, however, there was another kind of architectural sculpture, which seems to have begun with the Hittites: the guardian monsters protuding from the blocks that framed the gateways of fortresses or palaces (see fig. . 23). This tradition may have inspired, directly, or indirectly, the carving over the Lion Gate of Mycenae (see fig. 4. 22). THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS, CORFU That the Lion Gate relief is, conceptually, an ancestor of later Greek architectural sculpture is clear when one considers the facade of the early Archaic Temple of Artemis on the island of Corfu, built soon after 600 BCE (figs. 5. 19 and 5. 20). There, sculpture is confined to a triangle between the ceiling and the roof, known as the pediment. This area serves as a screen, protecting the w ooden rafters behind it from moisture.The pedimental sculpture is displayed against this screen. Technically, these carvings are in high relief, like the guardian lionesses at Mycenae. However, the bodies are so strongly undercut that they are nearly detached from the background, and appear to be almost independent of their architectural setting. Indeed, the head of the central figure actually overlaps the frame; she seems to emerge out of the pediment toward a viewer. This choice on the sculptor's part heightens the impact of the figure and strengthens her function.Although the temple was dedicated to Artemis, the figure represents the snake-haired Medusa, one of the Gorgon sisters of Greek mythology. Medusa's appearance was so monstrous, so the story went, that anyone who beheld her would turn to stone. With the aid of the gods, Perseus beheaded her, guiding his sword by looking at her reflection in his shield. 5. 14 Kore (Maiden). ca. 630 BCE. Limestone. Height 24 1/2† (62. 3 cm). Musee du Louvre, Paris 5. 15 Kouros (Youth), ca. 600-590 BCE. Marble. Height 6'1 1/2† (1. 88 m). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 5. 16 Kroisos (Kouros from Anavysos). ca. 540-525 BCE.Marble. Height 6'4† (1. 9 m). National Museum, Athens 5. 17 Kore in Dorian Peplos, known as Peplos Kore, ca. 530 BCE. Marble. Height 48† (122 cm). Akropolis Museum, Athens 5. 18 Kore, from Chios (? ). ca. 520 BCE, Marble. Height 21 7/8† (55. 3). Akropolis Museum, Athens 5. 19 Central Portion of the west pediment of the Temple of Artemis at Corfu, Greece, ca. 600-580 BCE. Limestone. Height 9'2†. (2. 8 m). Archaeological Museum, Corfu, Greece Traditionally, Medusa has been thought of as a protective visual device, but recent approaches argue that she served as a visual commentary on the power of the divinity.She is conceived as a mistress of animals exemplifying the goddess' power and her dominance over Nature. Two large feline creatures flank Medusa, in a he raldic arrangement known from the Lion Gate at Mycenae, and from many earlier Near Eastern examples. To strengthen the sculptures' message, the artist included narrative elements in the pediment as well. In the spaces between and behind the main group, the sculptor inserted a number of subsidiary figures. On either side of Medusa are her children, the winged horse Pegasus, and Chrysaor, who will be born from drops of her blood, shed when Perseus decapitates her.Logically speaking, they cannot yet exist, since Medusa's head is still on her shoulders; and yet their presence in the heraldic arrangement alludes to the future, when Perseus will have claimed the Gorgon's power as his own—just as the sculptor has here, in the service of Artemis. The sculptor has fused two separate moments from a single story, in what is known as a synoptic narrative, bringing the story to life. Two additional groups filled the pediment's corners, possibly depicting Zeus and Poseidon battling the gia nts (a gigantomachy), a moral race who tried to overthrow the gods.Like the central figures, they strike a cautionary note, since the gods destroyed them for their overreaching ambitions. With their reclining pose, the felines fit the shape of the pediment comfortably. Yet in order to fit Pegasus and Chrysaor between Medusa and the felines, and the groups into the corners, the sculptor carved them at a significantly smaller scale than the dominant figures. Later solutions to the pediment's awkward shape suggest that this one, which lacks unity of scale, was not wholly satisfactory.Aside from filling the pediment, Greeks might affix free-standing figures, known as acroteria (often of terra cotta) above the corners and the center of the pediment, softening the severity of its outline (see fig. 5. 21). Greek sculptors also decorate the frieze. In Doric temples, such as at Corfu, where the frieze consists of triglyphs and metopes, they would often decorate the latter with figural scenes . In Ionic temples, the frieze was a continuous band of painted or sculpted decoration.Moreover, in Ionic buildings, female statues or caryatids might substitute for columns to support the roof of a porch, adding a further decorative quality (see figs. 5. 21 and 5. 53). THE SIPHNIAN TREASURY, DELPHI These Ionic features came together in a treasury built at Delphi shortly before 525 BCE by the people of the Ionian island of Siphnos. Treasuries were like miniature temples, used for storing votive gifts; typically, they had an ornate quality. Although the Treasury of the Siphnians no longer stands, archeologists have been able to create a reconstruction from what survives (figs. . 21 and 5. 22). Supporting the architrave of the porch were two caryatids. Above the architrave is a magnificent sculptural frieze. The detail shown here (fig. 5. 22) depicts part of the mythical battle of the Greek gods against the giants, who had challenged divine authority. At the far left, the two lions wh o pull the chariot of the mother goddess Cybele tear apart an anguished giant. In front of them, Apollo and Artemis advance together, shooting arrows into a phalanx of giants. Their weapons were once added to the sculpture in metal.Stripped of his armor, a dead giant lies at their feet. As in the Corfu pediment, the tale is a cautionary one, warning mortals not to aim higher than their natural place in the order of things. Though the subject is mythical, its depiction offers a wealth of detail on contemporary weaponry and military tactics. Astonishingly, the relief is only a few inches deep from front to back. Within that shallow space, the sculptors (more than one hand is discernible) created several planes. The arms and legs of those nearest a viewer are carved in the round.In the second and third layers, the forms become shallower, yet even those farthest from a viewer do not merge into the background. The resulting relationships between figures give a dramatic sense of the turmo il of battle and an intensity of action not seen before in narrative reliefs. As at Corfu, the protagonists fill the sculptural field from top to bottom, enhancing the frieze's power. This is a dominant characteristic of Archaic and Classical Greek art, and with time, sculptors executing pedimental sculpture sought new ways to fill the field while retaining a unity of scale.Taking their cue, perhaps, from friezes such as that found on the Siphnian Treasury, they introduced a variety of poses, and made great strides in depicting the human body in naturalistic motion. This is well illustrated in the pediments of the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina, an island in the Saronic Gulf visible from Attica (see fig. 5. 12). PEDIMENTS OF THE TEMPLE OF APHAIA AT AEGINA. The temple of Aphaia's original east pediment was probably destroyed by the Persians when they took the island in 490 BCE. The Aeginetans commissioned the present one (fig. 5. 3) after defeating the Persians at the battle of Salamis i n 480 BCE. It depicts the first sack of Troy, by Herakles and Telamon, king of Salamis. The west pediment, which dates from about 510-500 BCE, depicts the second siege of Troy (recounted in The Iliad) by Agamemnon, who was related to Herakles. The pairing of subjects commemorates the important role played by the heroes of Aegina in both battles—and, by extension, at Salamis, where their navy helped win the day. The elevation of historical events to a universal plane through allegory was typical of Greek art.The figures of both pediments are fully in the round, independent of the background that they decorate. Those of the east pediment were found in pieces on the ground. Scholars continue to debate their exact arrangement, but the relative position of each figure within the pediment can be determined with reasonable accuracy. Since the designer introduced a wide range of action poses for the figures, their height, but not their scale, varies to suit the gently sloping sides o f the pedimental field (fig. 5. 23). These variances in height can be used to determine the figures' original positions.In the center stands the goddess Athena, presiding over the battle between Greeks and Trojans that rages on either side of her. Kneeling archers shoot across the pediment to unite its action. The symmetrical arrangement of the poses on the two halves of the pediment creates a balanced design, so that while each figure has a clear autonomy, it also exists within a governing ornamental pattern. If we compare a fallen warrior from the west pediment (fig. 5. 24) with its counterpart from the later east pediment (fig. 5. 25) we see some indication of the extraordinary advances sculptors made toward naturalism during the decades that separate them.As they sink to the ground in death, both figures present a clever solution to filling the awkward corner space. Yet while the earlier figure props himself up on one arm, only a precariously balance shield supports the later wa rrior, whose full weight seems to pull him irresistibly to the ground. Both sculptors aimed to contort the dying warrior's body in the agonies of his death: The earlier sculptor crosses the warrior's legs in an awkward pose, while the later sculptor more convincingly twists the body from the waist, so that the left shoulder moves into a new plane.Although the later warrior's anatomy still does not fully respond to his pose (note, for instance, how little the pectorals stretch to accommodate the strenuous motion of the right arm), his body is more modeled and organic than the earlier warrior's. He also breaks from the head-on stare of his predecessor, turning his gaze to the ground that confronts him. The effect suggests introspection: The inscrutable smiling mask of the earlier warrior yields to the suffering and emotion of a warrior in his final moments. Vase Painting: Art of the SymposiumIn vase painting, the new Archaic style would replace the Orientalizing phase as workshops in Athens and other centers produced extremely fine wares, painted with scenes from mythology, legend, and everyday life. The vases illustrated in these pages were used to hold wine, but were not meant for everyday use. The Greeks generally poured their wine from plainer, unadorned vases. Decorated vases were reserved for important occasions, like the symposium (symposion), an exclusive drinking party for men and courtesans; wives and other respectable citizen women were not included.Participants reclined on couches around the edges of a room, and a master of ceremonies filled their cups from a large painted mixing bowl (a krater) in the middle of the room. Music, poetry, storytelling, and word games accompanied the festivities. Often the event ended in lovemaking, which is frequently depicted on drinking cups. Yet there was also a serious side to symposia, as described by Plato and Xenophon, 5. 20 Reconstruction drawing of the west front of the Temple of Artemis at Corfu (after Rodenw aldt) 5. 21 Reconstruction drawing of the Treasury of the Siphnians.Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, ca. 525 BCE 5. 22 Battle of the Gods and Giants, from the north frieze of the Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi. ca. 530 BCE. Marble. Height 26† (66 cm). Archaeological Museum, Delphi 5. 23 Reconstruction drawing of the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina (after Ohly) 5. 24 Dying Warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, ca. 500-490 BCE. Marble. Length 5†² 2 1/2† (1. 59 m). Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich 5. 24 Dying Warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, ca. 500-490 BCE. Marble. Length 5†² 2 1/2† (1. 9 m). Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich centering on debates about politics, ethics, and morality. The great issues that the Greeks pondered in their philosophy, literature, and theater—the nature of virtue, the value of an individual man's life, or mortal relations with the gods, to name a few—were mirrored in, and prompted by, the images with which they surrounded themselves. After the middle of the sixth century BCE, many of the finest vessels bear signatures of the artists who made them, indicating the pride that potters and painters alike took in their work.In many cases, vase painters had such distinctive styles that scholars can recognize their work even without a signature, and modern names are used to identify them. Dozens of vases (in one instance, over 200) might survive by the same hand, allowing scholars to trace a single painter's development over many years. The difference between Orientalizing and Archaic vase painting is largely one of technique. On the aryballos from Corinth (see fig. 5. 5), the figures appear partly as solid silhouettes, partly in outline, or as a combination of the two.Toward the end of the seventh century BCE, influenced by Corinthian products, Attic vase painters began to work in the black-figured technique : The entire design was painted in black silhouette against the reddish clay; and then the internal details were incised into the design with a needle. Then, white and purple were painted over the black to make chosen areas stand out. The technique lent itself to a two-dimensional and highly decorative effect. This development marks the beginning of an aggressive export industry, the main consumers of which were the Etruscans.Vast numbers of black-figured vases were found in Etruscan tombs. Thus, although in terms of conception these vases (and later red-figured vessels) represent a major chapter in Greek (and specifically Athenian) art, if we think about their actual use, painted vases can be considered a major component of Etruscan culture, both visual and funerary. A fine example of the black-figured technique is an Athenian amphora signed by Exekias as both potter and painter, dating to the third quarter of the sixth century BCE (fig. 5. 26). The painting shows the Homeric heroe s Achilles and Ajax playing dice.The episode does not exist in surviving literary sources, and its appearance here points to the wide field of traditions that inspired Exekias. The two figures lean on their spears; their shields are stacked behind them against the inside of a campaign tent. The black silhouettes create a rhythmical composition, symmetrical around the table in the center. Within the black paint, Exekias has incised a wealth of detail, focusing especially upon the cloaks of the warriors; their intricately woven texture contrasts with the lustrous blackness of their weapons. The extraordinary power of this scene derives from the tension within it.The warriors have stolen a moment of relaxation during a fierce war; even so, poised on the edge of their stools, one heel raised as if to jump at any moment, their poses are edgy. An inscription in front of Ajax, on the right, reads â€Å"three†, as if he is calling out his throw. Achilles, who in his helmet slightly d ominates the scene, answers with â€Å"four,† making him the winner. Yet many a Greek viewer would have understood the irony of the scene, for when they return to battle, Achilles will die, and Ajax will be left to bear his friend's lifeless body back to the Greek camp, before falling on his own sword in despair.Indeed, Exekias himself would paint representations of the heroes' tragic deaths. This amphora is the first known representation of the gaming scene, which subsequently became very popular, suggesting that individual vase painting did not exist in artistic isolation; painters responded to one another's work in a close and often clever dialogue. Despite its decorative potential, the silhouettelike black-figured technique limited the artist to incision for detail. Toward the end of the sixth century BCE, painters developed the reverse procedure, leaving the figures red and filling in the background.This red-figured technique gradually replaced the older method betwee 52 0 and 500 BCE. The effects of the change would be felt increasingly in the decades to come, but they are already discernible on an amphora of about 510-500 BCE, signed by Euthymides (fig. 5. 27). No longer is the scene so dependent on profiles. The painter's new freedom with the brush translates into a freedom of movement in the dancing revelers he represents. They cavort in a range of poses, twisting their bodies and showing off Euthymides' confidence in rendering human anatomy.The shoulder blades of the central figure, for instance, are not level, but instead reflect the motion of his raised arm. The turning poses allow Euthymides to tackle foreshortening, as he portrays the different planes of the body (the turning shoulders, for instance) on a single surface. This was an age of intensive and self-conscious experimentation; indeed, so pleased was Euthymides with his painting that he inscribed it with a taunting challenge to a fellow painter, â€Å"As never Euphronios†.On a slightly later kylix (wine cup) by Douris, dating to 490-480 BCE, Eos, the goddess of dawn, tenderly lifts a limp body of her dead son. Memnon, whom Achilles killed after their mothers sought the intervention of Zeus (fig. 5. 28). Douris traces the contours of limbs beneath the drapery, and balances vigorous outlines with more delicate secondary strokes, such as those indicating the anatomical details of Memnon's body contrasts with the lift of Eos' wings, an ironic commentary, perhaps, on how Zeus decided between the two warriors by weighing their souls on a scale that tipped against Memnon.After killing him, Achilles stripped off Memnon's armor as a gesture of humiliation, and where the figures overlap in the image, the gentle folds of Eos' flowing chiton set off Memnon's nudity. His vulnerability in turn underlines his mother's desperate grief at being unable to help her son. At the core of the image is raw emotion. Douris tenderly exposes the suffering caused by intrasigent fat e, and the callousness of the gods who intervene in mortal lives. As we saw on the pediment from Aegina, depictions of suffering, and how humans respond to it, are among the most dramatic developments of late Archaic art.In this mythological scene, Athenians may have seen a reflection of themselves during the horrors of the Persian Wars. Indeed, the vase is brought into the realm of everyday life by its inscription, with the signatures of both painter and potter, as well as a dedication typical of Greek vases: â€Å"Hermogenes is beautiful. † THE CLASSICAL AGE The beginning of the fifth century BCE brought crisis. A number of Ionian cities rebelled against their Persian overlords.