Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Project management methodology

Project management methodology An Insight into Project Methodology PRINCE2 (20-Mar-2010) PRINCE is a project Management methodology that expands into projects in controlled Environments. It is a registered trademark belonging to the Office of the Government Commerce (OGC). OGC is an autonomous office of HM Treasury of the United Kingdom. The second major version was released in 1996 as PRINCE2 and has now become a popular standard for project management in the UK. The latest version was released in June 2009 under the name of â€Å"PRINCE2:2009 Refresh†. There are two manuals associated with this version. They are ‘Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 2009 Edition and ‘Directing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 2009 Edition. The main advantages pertaining to PRINCE2 is the technique of structured approach it provides to project management. It says that a project should have an organized and controlled start, an organized and controlled middle and an organized and controlled end. Basically it implies that things have to be organized and planned before initiation, continue to be organized and controlled and when the project delivers the desired outcome and is completed any loose ends should be tidied up. The PRINCE2 2009 gives definition to 40 separate activities and these are further organized into seven processes. Directing a project is a process that spans from project initiation to closure. This process is managed by the Project Board. The key processes for the Project Board consists of Initiation, Stage Boundaries, providing Ad hoc direction and Project closure. Starting up a Project (SU) is the first process in PRINCE2. It is to make certain that the pre-requisites for initiating the project are prepared. The work done in this process ensures that the information essential for the project team is on hand, the Project Management team is appointed and the Initiation Stage plan is formed. Some of the objectives of Initiating a project (IP) are to decide on the sufficiency of justification to proceed with the project, establishing a stable management basis, Confirmation of Acceptable Business Case, Agreeing on the commitment of resources, Project board taking ownership of the project and ensuring that time and effort are invested wisely. Managing Stage Boundaries (MSB) is process that focuses on providing the Project Board with key decision points such as assurance on the deliverables status, providing information to assess and approve current stage and authorize the continuance into the next stage and record measurements that can serve at a later stage. Controlling a Stage (CS) is a process wherein the Project Manager manages and controls the stage by handling day-to-day management activities. For all the stages activities like authorization of work, gathering information about progress, monitoring changes and reviewing the situation, reporting and taking corrective action are all part of the process. Risk management and Change control being imperative, are on-going integrated inclusions. The main objective of Managing a Product Delivery (MP) is to ensure that planned products are created and delivered as per requirements and quality. The process also ensures on obtain of necessary approvals and assessment of forecasts and work progress. The purpose of the process, Closing a project (CP) is to execute a systematic and controlled closure. The chief work goes towards preparation of input to the Project Board on getting acceptance of closure. The activities consist of checking the extent to which project objectives were met, confirming customer satisfaction and receiving formal acceptance and confirm on the maintenance and post implementation operations. Following this will be the preparation of Lessons Learned Report if any, Project End report and releasing of resources. Planning (PL) is a repeatable process and an important criterion in all other processes. PRINCE2 has a planning framework that is useful for any type of project. This involves studying the need of products, determining the order of production, defining form and content, deciding the activities that are required for the conception and delivery. The PRINCE2 Project Management Roles require a Project Manager, Customer, User and Supplier and also a Project Board consisting of the Customer and someone on behalf of the User and Supplier. The Project Management Techniques followed take care to providing Project Assurance, Project Support and a way to control the impact of changes. PRINCE2 is a proven method for managing projects, but does not guarantee success as successful projects depends largely upon the quality of the whole team. References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRINCE2 http://www.prince2.com/

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Sex Workers in Canada Essay -- Prostitution, Sex Work

Sometimes, the term â€Å"sex work† is used, as well as â€Å"prostitution†. But whichever term we choose to say, it does not eliminate the stigma attached to it. Cases such as the Bedford V. Canada Case (144) indulges into the conspiracy of sex work and challenges certain sections of the Criminal Code that make business in relation to prostitution illegal. Ideally, a sex worker has a career just as a teacher or lawyer. For this reason, their human rights and dignity should be protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as are other professions. However, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as the Criminal Code do not seek to protect sex workers, yet, they seek to do otherwise using certain sections of the Criminal Code to criminalize sex work. Therefore, sex workers demand a permanent change in the law, their rights and freedoms in order to feel less threatened about their choice of work. This paper attempts to illustrate the legal terms of sex work, the main arguments made in the Bedford Case as well as an understanding of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Criminal Code, what sex workers face and are diligently demanding. Prostitution is legal in Canada, and to be a sex worker is legal. However, almost every activity that is related to prostitution is considered illegal under the law. That is to say, in practice, prostitution is viewed as a criminal activity. Because prostitution is criminalized, it augments the attitude that they are not or less worthy of being protected or they simply â€Å"deserve what ever they get†. This stigma clearly marginalizes sex workers and allows for people to freely exploit, humiliate, harass, and physically abuse these individuals. Sex workers are abused and exper... ...Sex Work and the Law: A Changing Legal Landscape.† www.owjn.org http://owjn.org/owjn_2009/legal-information/aboriginal-law/121#i3 (accessed November 28, 2013) Overall, Christine. What's wrong with prostitution? Evaluating sex work. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1992.3 â€Å"Sex Trade Workers Of Canada.† http://www.sextradeworkersofcanada.com/ (accessed December 1, 2013). The Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. â€Å"Sex, work, rights: Changing Canada's criminal laws to protect sex workers' health and human rights.† www.maggiestoronto.ca http://maggiestoronto.ca/uploads/File/Sex-work-rights-(HALN).pdf (accessed November 28, 2013) The Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. â€Å"Decriminalizing sex work(ers): law reform to protect health and human rights.† www.aidslaw.ca http://www.aidslaw.ca/publications/interfaces/downloadFile.php?ref=199 (accessed November 27, 2013)

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Privacy And Islam Essay

Islam is a religion that teaches respect, that recognizes the importance of individual rights and that preaches the honoring of freedom and equality. In the article the author attempts to examine the importance and sacredness of privacy in Islam. He also tries to locate the extent to which the right to privacy has been regulated in different Islamic countries and the methods of regulation used. Pakistan is used a case study to examine how laws pertaining to data protection have been drafted with the European market in mind. The author attempts to analyze whether the laws are in accordance with and based on Islamic principles of privacy.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The article first outlines the references to privacy in the Holy Quran. These range from verses stressing the importance of privacy in the home and of family members. The importance of chastity and modesty is stressed upon, as is the magnitude of guarding against the spreading of private information, especially, that which concerns an individual’s wrongs. The author argues that private information can be recognized as a form of property and that according to Islam individuals are completely free to do as they please in their own private spheres of life.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The author then analyses the data protection and information law in Pakistan using the country as a case study. He shows how the areas identified for regulation and control include banking, data protection, cyber crime etc. He goes on to outline the main features of the law including the fact that it applies to data processing taking place within Pakistan and also focusing on how it facilitates without regulating. The author concludes that the law has been drafted to help in the growth of the outsourcing industries in Pakistan and that the law is in keeping with the Islamic principles of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. The criticism of the law is restrained to the fact that it is applicable only to the private sector and not the public sector.

Friday, January 3, 2020

`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway Essay

Relationships can be difficult when two people have an opposing stance on a controversial topic such as abortion. Men, in their self-interest, perceive this option as an easy way out, in which they can have all the pleasure and none of the consequences. However, for a woman an abortion causes both physical and emotional pain which a man could never understand. Thus, making this one of the utmost difficult issues a girl may need to face in her life. In Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants,† there are two Americans traveling in Spain. The setting of the scene is a bar located near the train station where the man and the girl discuss this life altering operation, as they await the arrival of the train to Madrid. Throughout the story the man is persuasive, as he attempts to convince the girl to have the operation, while at the same time, the girl expresses her reluctance and remains unconvinced that an abortion is the answer to their problems. Abortion remains as co ntroversial today as it was when Ernest Hemingway wrote â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants†. Although Hemingway never used the word abortion in his story, he found ways to evoke emotions of sympathy for the girl and disdain for the man through his creative use of symbolism, setting, and characters in the short story. As mentioned in the story and the title, the significance of the symbolism and the term white elephant refers to the baby since it is a gift which is expensive and difficult to maintain. In this instance theShow MoreRelatedHills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway580 Words   |  2 PagesE.B. White once said, â€Å"Theres no limit to how complicated things can get, on account of one thing always leading to another.† This quotation means that nobody ever knows how complicated things are going to get, and on top of that they can get worse. One can agree with this statement because in life you can go through unexpected situations that really affect your l ife in a negative way, and in life things might get worse. Both Soldiers home by Ernest Hemingway and Hills like white elephants by ErnestRead More`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway886 Words   |  4 Pagesreader could put themselves into. Whether they choose to partake in a wayward journey full of adventure or the daily life of a human being with morals; a story’s aspect influences those thoughts with a deeper understanding. In Ernest Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants,† it follows an American man and girl at a resting point during their travels. They arrived by train, stopping between Barcelona and Madrid. While there, they patiently waited for the next train at a bar inside of the station.Read MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway893 Words   |  4 Pages Ernest Hemingway was a prolific writer. His short story, â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† shows the tense situation between a man and a woman on vacation . Hemingway chooses to be vague in many ways. He never gives real names to his characters, nor explicitly states where they are besides hinting that they are in Spain. Additionally, he leaves it entirely to the reader to discover what the couple is discussing. By only providing information to the reader through only the dialogue of the two centralRead More`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway939 Words   |  4 PagesThe short story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† written by Ernest Hemingway, is an intriguing literary work that foretells the story of a man and a woman waiting for a train, whilst discussing their feelings and emotions towards the surgical operation that is about to occur on the woman. Although the story was originally written in August 1927, the piece was later published in Hemingway’s short story collection ‘Men Without Women’. The text includes a wide variety of literary terms and has various criticalRead MoreHills Like W hite Elephants By Ernest Hemingway990 Words   |  4 Pages Another relationship coming to an end†¦ Throughout the story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† written in 1927 by Ernest Hemingway, he used the train station setting, the desired operation, and obviously the relationship between the American and the girl to symbolize a crumbling relationship and unwanted gift between them. The American and the girl find themselves wound up in a rough, unplanned situation that they are trying to fix. Many bread crumbs are dropped throughout the story to symbolize a collapsingRead MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway1446 Words   |  6 PagesErnest Hemingway’s short story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† explores the topics of abortion, sex before marriage, and feelings of separation. There are many different points of view one can take on Hemingway’s work. The main literary analysis that will be explained is the significance of the title and how it is layered into the story in various places. In addition to this, the narrator’s point of view will also be discussed since it plays a role in bringing the characters together. Lastly, it willRead More`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway1750 Words   |  7 PagesErnest Hemingway’s stories are known for their ever interpreting meanings behind them, and â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† does not trail from the rest due to the never mentioned word ‘abortion’. â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants,† written by Ernest Hemingway, takes place around World War 1 in Spain, at a train station (Hills Like White Elephants. 4). An American man and a girl have been discussing the girl’s unspecific operation. It is apparent that the girl is perturbed about this operation, while theRead MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway1037 Words   |  5 PagesOlivia Sellers English 102 Scheck February 10, 2016 â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† by Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† can be puzzling and hard to decipher. Due to this, a number of conclusions can be drawn away from the text. The dialog between characters leaves a number of questions unanswered and leaves the reader confused about the conversation as a whole. Many things are left unsaid and not explained in the story, with that being the case, the reader must takeRead More`` Hills Like White Elephant `` By Ernest Hemingway865 Words   |  4 Pagesbefore it begins, or as easily getting rid of problem before it even became one. In the short story â€Å"Hills like White Elephant†, the compensation of abortion can easily be seen between Jig and her American lover’s decision whether to keep the innocent’s life or not. Ernest Hemingway uses the fiction element plot, symbolism, and setting to illustrate the theme of abortion in â€Å"Hills like White Elephants.† Abortion has been viewed as a crucial struggle between couples. Many view this situation as endingRead MoreHills Like White Elephants, by Ernest Hemingway1432 Words   |  6 Pagesunderstood behaviors. Ernest Hemingway weaves both of these stereotypes into his short story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants.† The story’s plot revolves around a couple arguing about whether or not to have an abortion. In Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† a theme of male domination can be found, but by examining the dialogue closely, a theme of females asserting their will and manipulating emerges as well. Male domination is the primary and most obvious theme in â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants.† During the